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«Министерство сельского хозяйства РФ ФГБОУ ВПО «Кубанский государственный аграрный университет» А. Э. Зайцева ОСНОВЫ АНАТОМИИ И ФИЗИОЛОГИИ ЖИВОТНЫХ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ Учебное ...»

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Министерство сельского хозяйства РФ

ФГБОУ ВПО «Кубанский государственный аграрный университет»

А. Э. Зайцева

ОСНОВЫ АНАТОМИИ И ФИЗИОЛОГИИ ЖИВОТНЫХ

НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Учебное пособие

Краснодар

КубГАУ

2013959860212090006

УДК 811.111 : 591.1 /.4 (075.8)

ББК 81.2АнглЗ-17

Рецензенты:

Т. В. Штатская – доцент кафедры иностранных языков, кандидат филологических наук

(Кубанский государственный технологический университет);

Т. С. Непшекуева – доктор филологических наук профессор

(Кубанский государственный аграрный университет)

Зайцева А. Э.

З-17 Основы анатомии и физиологии животных на английском языке : учеб. пособие / А. Э. Зайцева. – Краснодар : КубГАУ, 2016. – 99 с.

ISBN 978-5-00097-043-0

Пособие включает тексты для чтения. Содержит упражнения позволяющее обеспечить должный уровень закрепления навыков чтения, повторение и изучения лексики и грамматики и совершенствование навыков говорения.

Предназначено для студентов-бакалавров и магистров факультета ветеринарной медицины и ветеринарно-санитарной экспертизы.

УДК 811.111 : 591.1 /.4 (075.8)

ББК 81.2Англ© Зайцева А. Э., 2016

© ФГБОУ ВПО «Кубанский государственный аграрный

ISBN 978-5-00097-043-0

университет», 2016

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ



Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку “Animal physiology and anatomy” предназначено для работы в группах студентов-бакалавров и специалистов, совершенствующих свои навыки в английском языке.

Целью пособия является расширение активного словарного запаса, приобретения навыков профессионально ориентированного чтения и коммуникации на английском языке. Данное пособие предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов под руководством преподавателя. Тексты пособия не адаптированы, взяты из современных источников и отражают разнообразие современного английского языка.

Учебный материал рассчитан, как на базовый, так и на продвинутый уровень обучения, что дает возможность для самостоятельной работы студентам более высокого уровня подготовки.

Пособие составлено в соответствии с требованиями программы по иностранным языкам для неязыковых вузов и включает в себя 8 разделов, в каждом из которых аутентичные тексты на английском языке по специальности, поурочный словарь, а также упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков говорения, чтения и перевода оригинальной литературы в профессиональной сфере.

В каждом разделе имеются предтекстовые задания, для подготовки к работе с текстом и активизации ранее изученного материала, послетекстовые упражнения ориентированы на проверку понимания содержания текста, и упражнения, стимулирующие творческую устную и письменную коммуникацию. Грамматический материал изучается на практических занятиях с преподавателем, а также прорабатывается обучающимися самостоятельно. В пособии имеется краткий грамматический справочник.

UNIT 1ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY

Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the international words and scientific terms:

antibiotic, biochemical, biochemistry, biomechanics, biophysics, characteristics, cytology, to design, enzyme, evolution, function, hormone, mechanism, metabolism, microelement, organ, organism, parameter, pharmacology, physical, physiologist, physiology, principle, reaction, standard, sterility, vitamin





Ex. 2. Define parts of speech and translate the words:

1) analyze, analysis, analytical, analyst;

2) special; specialist, to specialize;

3) science, scientific, scientist;

4) physics, physical, physicist, biophysics;

5) chemistry, biochemistry, chemical, biochemical, chemist;

6) origin, original, to originate;

7) application, to apply;

8) milk, milking, to milk, milkman;

9) different, differences, to differ;

10) to investigate, investigator, investigation

Ex. 3. Vocabulary to the text. Learn new words.

analysis (analyses), to analyze – анализ, анализировать

application, to apply – применение, применять

approach – приближаться, подход к решению проблемы

basis (bases) – основа

breed – порода, выводить породу

cell – клетка

datum (data)-данные

difference – разница, различие

feature – черта, особенность

feeding, feeding ration – кормление, рацион питания

research – исследование

importance – важность, значимость

level – уровень

offspring – отпрыск, потомок

origin – происхождение

significance – значимость, важность

similarity – сходство

species, type, variety, strain – вид, род, сорт, особь

tissue– ткань

use – использовать

value -ценность

concentrate (on) – концентрироваться на чем либо

consider – рассматривать, принимать во внимание

consist (of) – состоять из

deal (with) – сталкиваться, иметь дело с чем либо

depend (on) – зависеть от

devote (to) – посвящать чему либо

divide (in/into) – делить(ся) на

investigate – исследовать

maintain – поддерживать, сохранять

originate (from) – происходить от,(из)

relate (to) – связывать с

for instance – на пример

in general – в основном

in order to – для того, чтобы

to take into account – принимать во внимание

throughout – везде, повсюду

Ex. 4. Match the Russian word-combinations with their English equivalents.

Шерстная порода овец ; морозоустойчивая порода животных; местная порода; сорт риса; биологический вид; клеточный штамм; гибридная линия; яйценоская линия/порода птиц; тип породы; порода сального типа (свиней); свиньи беконного типа; яйценоский тип (птицы); смушковый тип овец; тип шерсти; морозоустойчивый сорт; яровой сорт; местные виды (разновидности) свиней

spring variety; hardy animal breed; egg type; local pig varieties; lard-type breed of pigs; biological species; local/native breed; hybrid strain; fur type of sheep; rice variety; cell strain; wool breed; bacon-type pigs; laying strain; frost resistant variety; breed type; wool type.

Ex. 5. Read the text find English equivalents for the Russian ones:

живой организм

сравнительная физиология

возрастная физиология

кровообращение

дыхание

современные животные

лечить больных животных

проблема, вызванная недостаточным питанием

искусственное осеменение

разведение животных

Ex. 6. Translate the text:

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY

The word "physiology" originated from the Greek language and it consists of two parts: physics which means "nature" and logos which is "word". In general, physiology is the study of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology, animal physiology and human physiology but the physiology principles are universal, even if a particular organism is being studied.

Animal physiology is the study of animal functions, that is the study of "how animals work". The rapid development of animal physiology as a distinct discipline began in the 19th century and was stimulated by, the requirements of animal husbandry and veterinary science. Animal physiology is subdivided into the four main Parts, such as general physiology, special physiology, comparative physiology and age physiology. General physiology deals with the analysis of such universal and important processes as blood circulation, metabolism, respiration etc. Special physiology applies general physiological principles in order to investigate characteristics of a particular animal species. Comparative physiology concentrates on similarities and differences of physiological functions of various living organisms. The problems of how physiological functions change with animal age are of special interest to age physiology.

The main approach in animal physiology is to study the evolutionary origins of the physiological mechanisms in order to understand the significance of these mechanisms for modern-day animals. Modern physiology which is based on chemical, physical and anatomical methods investigate biological organization of the animal body at different levels, that is, cells, tissues, organs.

One of the parts of special physiology is devoted to farm animal physiology. The aim of this science is not only to study physiological.functions of the farm animal body, but to control them in order to increase the production of eggs, offspring, milk, meat and wool. The problem of how to maintain good health of farm animals throughout a long lifetime of high production is of great importance to farm specialists as well.

Farm animal physiology is closely related to veterinary science as it is necessary to know physiological standards and the physiological reactions which take place in the body of a healthy animal in order to cure sick animals and prevent different animal diseases. The problems of sterility and nutritional disorders are studied by physiologists as well as by veterinary surgeons.

Animal requirements in nutrients and energy depend on their physiological features, so feeding rations are calculated on the basis of physiological data. The feeding systems for rearing young animals are being developed on physiological parameters as well. Physiological characteristics such as age and weight are considered by the scientists when animals are fed with vitamins, antibiotics, microelements or hormones.

Farmers should take into account some important physiological features of animals in different situations, for instance, when a farmer is going to use artificial insemination or train sport horses or dogs.

Physiological parameters of farm animals are of special value to engineers who design different farm mechanisms, such as milking or feeding ".

Other major branches of scientific study that have grown out, of physiology research include biochemistry, biophysics, biomechanics, pharmacology, cytology as well as genetic which are known as the biological bases for rational animal husbandry.

EXERCISES TO THE TEXT

Ex. 7. Finish the sentences and translate them:

Physiology is a study of…

The rapid development of…

General physiology deals…

Comparative physiology focuses…

The problem of …good health of…

age and weight are considered…

are of special value to engineers…

Ex. 8. Mark the sentences with true (T), false (f), or not stated (NS):

Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology.

Comparative physiology concentrates on similarities and differences of physiological functions of various living organisms.

The problems of how physiological functions change with age have great importance.

One of the parts of special physiology is devoted to farm animal physiology.

The problems of sterility and nutritional disorders are studied by physiologists as well as by veterinary surgeons.

Physiological characteristics such as age and weight are considered by the scientists when animals are growth.

Other major branches of scientific study that have grown out, of physiology research include biochemistry, biophysics, biomechanics, pharmacology, cytology as well as genetic which are known as the biological bases for rational animal husbandry.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions.

What does physiology study?

What are the main parts of physiology?

What stimulated the development of animal physiology?

What problems are of special interest to animal physiologists?

What are the main principles of physiological study?

Why is farm animal physiology of great practical value?

How can the knowledge of physiological reactions help to maintain healthy farm animals?

What influences animal requirements in nutrients?

When do farm specialists take into account physiological characteristics of animals?

What sciences are based on physiology research?

Ex. 10. Translate the word-combinations into English using ‘’noun + noun’’:

физиология растений; физиология человека; физиологические принципы; функции животных; виды животных; тело животного; синтез фермента; физиология сельскохозяйственных животных; специалисты по сельскому хозяйству; здоровье животных; болезни животных; ветеринарная наука; потребности животных; спортивные лошади; сельскохозяйственные механизмы; исследования по физиологии; физиологические характеристики; физиологические функции; физиологические стандарты; физиологические реакции; физиологические данные.Ex. 11. Translate from Russian into English:

Физиология имеет огромное значение среди функциональных наук, которые тесно связаны с медициной.

Сегодня изучение физиологии животных состоит в том, чтобы исследовать функции организма на клеточном и молекулярном уровнях.Использование новых открытий в области физиологии представляет большой интерес для врачей, фармацевтов и фермеров.

Физиологические характеристики отдельного животного учитываются во многих случаях.

Сравнительная физиология изучает процессы размножения и лактации у различных видов сельскохозяйственных животных.

Ex. 12. Think and tell about:

1. What problems are animal physiologists investigating now?

2. Give examples when a farmer takes into account physiological features of a particular animal.

UNIT 2ANIMAL ANATOMY

Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the international words and scientific terms:

Term, form, structure, typical, system, identification, material, observation, texture, microscope, section, optical, electron, techniques, laboratory, type, method, physical, combination, specialize, characteristic, classification, portion.

Ex. 2. Define parts of speech and translate the words:

Anatomy, anatomists, anatomical

Developmental, develop, development

Structure, structural, construct

Speaking, speak, speaker

Injected, injection, inject

Use, useful,usefulness

Teaching, teach, teacher

Chemistry, chemist, chemical

Relation, relate, relating

Considerable, consider, consideration

Ex. 3. Vocabulary to the text. Learn new words.

to refer to – называться

to cut apart – отрезать

dissection – расчленение

cadaver – труп

preserve – сохранять

embalming – бальзамирование

pan – резервуар

vascular system – сосудистая система

facilitate – облегчать

shape – форма

texture – текстура

location – местоположение

relations – связь

visible – видимый

gain – получать

considerable refinement – значительное уточнение

staining – окрашивание

cell – клетка

tissue – ткань

subdivision – подразделение

unaided eye – невооруженный глаз

conception (fertilization of the egg) – оплодотворение

frequently – часто

approach – подход

bipedal – двуногие

quadrupedal stance – четвероногая позиция

nomenclature – наименования

leads to confusion – привести к замешательству

Ex. 4. Match the Russian word-combinations with their English equivalents.

Расчленение трупа, сохранять бальзамированием, значительное уточнение, первые анатомы, красящее вещество, видимый невооруженным глазом, привести к заблуждению, как внешние, так и внутренние, важно для понимания, при помощи, в паре с, сфера знаний, отдельные клетки, настолько обширная.

early anatomists, dissection of a cadaver, preserved by embalming, colored material, coupled with, visible to the unaided eye, essential for understanding, considerable refinement, become so extensive, with the aid of, brunch of knowledge, the root word, leads to confusion, individual cells, both internal and external.

Ex. 5. Read the text find English equivalents for the Russian ones:

Наука, касающаяся формы и строения организмов

Макроскопическая анатомическая лаборатория

Резервуары сосудистой системы

Облегчать определение сосудов

Нет другого способа

Тщательно подготовленные отрезки тканей

Работая над исследованиями

Применять принципы

Охватывая период

Изучение тканей и клеток

Ex.6. Translate the text:

ANATOMY OF ANIMALS

The term anatomy has come to refer to the science that deals with the form and structure of all organisms liberally, the word means to cut apart; it was used by early anatomists when speaking of complete dissection of a cadaver.

Study in a typical gross anatomy laboratory is based primarily on dissection of animal cadavers. These usually have been preserved by embalming, and one or more pans of the vascular system have been injected with a colored material to facilitate identification of the vessels. Careful dissection coupled with close observation gives the student a concept of the shape, texture, location, and relations of structures visible to the unaided eye that can he gained in no other way.

Similarly, the use of the microscope with properly prepared tissue sections on slides is essential for understanding structures that are so small they cannot be seen without optical or electron microscopic assistance.

Anatomists and physiologists working in research use some of the same techniques that are used in teaching laboratories but with considerable refinement. Both types of scientists use equipment and methods developed in the physical sciences, particularly chemistry and physics. The anatomist applies the principles of physics to the use of microscopes and applies knowledge of chemistry in the staining of various parts of cells and tissues. The combination of chemistry and microscopic anatomy is known as histochemistry.

The science of anatomy has become so extensive that it is now divided into many specialized branches. In fact, Dorland's Medical Dictionary defines 30 subdivisions of anatomy. This text chiefly describes gross (macroscopic) anatomy. This is the study of the form and relations (relative positions) of the structures of the body that can be seen with the unaided eye. Comparative anatomy is a study of the structures of various species of animals, with particular emphasis on those characteristics that aid in classification. Embryology is the study of developmental anatomy, covering the period from conception (fertilization of the egg) to birth. Another large branch of anatomy consists of the study of tissues and cells that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope. This is known as microscopic anatomy, or histology.

The most recent development in the study of anatomy is ultrastructural cytology, which deals with portions of cells and tissues as they are visualized with the aid of the electron microscope. The term fine structure is used frequently in reference to structures seen in electron micrographs (photographs made with the electron microscope). Our approach to the study of anatomy will be chiefly by systems – systematic anatomy.To name the study, the suffix -logy, which means brunch of knowledge or science, is added to the root word referring to the system.

Many terms of direction differ significantly between human and domestic animal anatomy because of the orientation of bipedal versus quadrupedal stance. Although use of human anatomical nomenclature in quadrupeds usually leads to confusion, the terms inferior, posterior, superior, and interior are frequently used to describe the eye and aspects of denial anatomy of both human organs, or individual cells to changes in their environment (both internal and external).

Nomenclature for Systematic Anatomy

System Name of Study Chief Structures

Skeletal system Osteology Bones

Articular system Arthrology

Joints

Muscular system

Myology Muscles

Digestive system

Splanchnology Stomach and intestines

Respiratory

system

Splanchnology Lungs and airways

Urinary system

Splanchnology Kidneys and urinary bladder

Reproductive

system

Splanchnology Ovaries and testes

Endocrine system

Endocrinology Ductless glands

Nervous system Neurology Brain,spinal cord, and nerves

Circulatory system

Cardiology Heart and vessels

Sensory system Esthesiology Eye and ear

Ex. 7. Finish the sentences and translate them:

is based primarily on dissection of animal cadavers.

scientists use equipment and methods developed in the…

Anatomists and physiologists working in research use some of the same

The combination of chemistry and microscopic anatomy…

is a study of the structures of various species of animals, with particular

Our approach to the study of anatomy will be chiefly …

between human and domestic animal anatomy because of the orientation of bipedal versus quadrupedal stance.

Ex. 8. Mark the sentences with true (T), false (f), or not stated (NS):

The term anatomy was used by early anatomists when speaking of complete dissection of a cadaver.

Similarly, the use of the microscope with properly prepared tissue sections on slides is not essential for understanding structures.

Anatomists and physiologists working in research use different techniques that are used in teaching laboratories but with considerable refinement.

The combination of chemistry and microscopic anatomy is known as histology.

Comparative anatomy is a study of the origination of various species of animals, with particular emphasis on those characteristics that aid in classification.

The study of tissues and cells that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope is known as microscopic anatomy, or histology.

To name the study, the suffix -logy, which means brunch of knowledge or science, is added to the root word referring to the system.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions.

What does term anatomy mean?

What does study in a typical gross anatomy laboratory is based on?

What do anatomists and physiologists use working in their research?

What principles and knowledge do the anatomist applies?

What is histochemistry?

What is gross (macroscopic) anatomy?

What is embryology?

What is comparative anatomy?

What is histology?

What does ultrastructural cytology deal with?

Ex. 10. Find the infinitive and determine its function in the sentences.

The term anatomy has come to refer to the science that deals with the form and structure of all organisms.

These usually have been preserved by embalming, and one or more pans of the vascular system have been injected with a colored material to facilitate identification of the vessels.

To name the study, the suffix -logy, which means brunch of knowledge or science, is added to the root word referring to the system.

The terms inferior, posterior, superior, and interior are frequently used to describe the eye and aspects of denial anatomy of both human organs, or individual cells to changes in their environment (both internal and external).

The experiment does not seem to provide enough evidence for the theory.

Ex. 11. Translate from Russian into English:

Термин анатомия используется для описания науки, касающейся, форм и структур всех живых организмов.

Обучение в макроскопических анатомических лабораториях в первую очередь основано на расчленении трупов животных.

Аккуратное расчленение наряду с внимательными наблюдениями дают студентам возможность понять форму, текстуру, расположение, связь структур, видимых невооруженным глазом.

Анатомы применяют принципы и знания физики и химии, изучая строение тканей и клеток.

Гистология – это изучение тканей и клеток при помощи микроскопа.

Ex. 12. Retell the text using the ex. 9.

UNIT 3MUSCULARSKELETAL SYSTEM

Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the international words and scientific terms :Skeleton, osteology, basis, structure, adaptation, lymphatic, nerves, stress, function, protection, form, mineral, element, arthrology, articulation, classify,

anatomy, specialize, muscle, specific, material, organ, identify, individual, term,

microscope, characteristic, protein, locomotion, position, respiration, stimulation.

Ex. 2. Define parts of speech and translate the words:

Adjust, adjustable, adjustability

Basis, basically, base

Difference, differ, different

Found, founder, foundation

Know, knowledge, known

Living, live, life

Movement, move, moving

Structure, structural, construct

Regulate, regulation, regulated

Responsible, response, respond

Ex. 3. Vocabulary to the text. Learn new words:

Appearance – внешний вид

Bone – кость

Framework – каркас, основа

Vertebrate – позвоночные

Share – делиться

Striking – поражающий

Blood vessels – кровеносные сосуды

Undergo – подвергаться

Repair – восстанавливать

Adjust – регулировать

Stress – напряжение

Provide – обеспечивать

Protection – защита

Rigidity –твердость

Acting – действующий

Levers – рычаги

Storing – хранение

Cellular – клеточный

Joint – сустав

Scheme – проект

Tissue – ткань

Cartilage – хрящ

Muscle – мышца

Smooth – гладкий

Cardiac – сердечный

Distinct – отчетливый

Intrinsically – присуще, внутренне

Permit – позволять

Locomotion – движение

Lungs – легкие

Thoracic cavity – грудная полость

Ex. 4. Match the Russian word-combinations with their English equivalents.

1) отражать приспособленность: 2) движение конечностей: 3) обеспечивающий защиту: 4) стенки кровеносных сосудов: 5) действующий как рычаги; 6) короткие, повторяющиеся сокращения; 7) подвергаться заболеваниям; 8) степень движения; 9) продвигать пищу; 10) толщина стенки; 11) каркас тела; 12) давать основу; 13) основная мышечная масса; 14) ответственный за; 15) реагировать на изменения.framework of the body, give a basis, reflect adaptations, subject to disease, adjust to changes, providing protection, acting as levers, degree of movement, the bulk of the muscle, responsible for, movements of the limbs, brief repetitive contractions, thickness of the wall, propel food, walls of blood vessels.

Ex. 5. Read the text find English equivalents for the Russian ones:

Внешняя структура

Позвоночные животные

Особый образ жизни

Состоит из костей

Свободное движение

Особые задачи

Изменять объем

Выработка тепла

Отсутствие сокращений

Стенки желудка и кишечника

Ex. 6. Translate the text:

MUSCULARSKELETAL SYSTEM

The study of the bones that make up the skeleton, or framework of the body, is osteology. The skeleton gives a basis for the external structure and appearance of most vertebrate animals as we know them. All mammals share a basic body plan with striking similarities in skeletal structure. Differences reflect adaptations to specific lifestyles.

The skeleton of a living animal is made up of bones that are themselves living structures. They have blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves; they are subject to disease; they can undergo repair; and they adjust to changes in stress. The functions of bones include providing protection, giving rigidity and form to the body, acting as levers, storing minerals, and forming the cellular elements of blood.

Syndesmology (arthrology) is the study of the articulations (unions) between bones, which are commonly called joints. Joints may be classified by a variety of schemes, usually by that of anatomy or degree of movement. The tissue that unites the bones of a joint is generally fibrous tissue or cartilage. The structure and arrangement of these tissues is specialized for the joint's specific task.

Based on their structure and the material that unites them joints may be classified as fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial.

Types of Muscle Tissue.

The three types of muscle are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. The bulk of the muscle in the body is skeletal muscle, and it is responsible for producing the voluntary movements of the limbs, trunk, and head. It is also the muscle tissue with which we are most familiar as the meat of our domestic animals. The muscle cells (fibers) of skeletal muscle tissue are grouped into distinct organs of variable size identified as individual muscles. These are usually attached to the bones of the skeleton (hence the term skeletal muscle) arid are under voluntary control of the animal. Under the microscope, skeletal muscle fibers exhibit a characteristic striped pattern arising from the orderly arrangement of the contractile proteins within the cells.

Skeletal muscles permit locomotion by contracting to change the relative positions: bones during movement and by maintaining joint angles against the pull of gravity during support. The skeletal muscles of respiration move air into and out of the lungs by contracting to change the volume of the thoracic cavity. In addition, heat production through shivering is the result of brief repetitive contractions of skeletal muscle throughout the body.

Smooth muscle is found in systems of the body with autonomic function. Thus, smooth muscle is a major component of the wall of organs of the digestive and urogenital systems and most blood vessels. Contraction of smooth muscle is an intrinsic property of the fibers themselves, which means that contraction does not generally require stimulation by a nerve; however, the contractility of smooth muscle is regulated and coordinated by the autonomic nervous system.

Cardiac muscle is characterized by fibers with visible striations, so it is considered a type of striated muscle. However, cardiac muscle, like smooth muscle, contracts intrinsically and is not under voluntary control. Cardiac muscle is restricted to the heart, where it constitutes most of the thickness of the wall. Its rhythmic contraction is responsible for the circulation of blood.

Functions of the Muscular System

Vertebrate muscle has only one function: contraction. "Relaxation" is a passive process, a lack of contraction. Thus, the varied functions of the muscular system are all based on contraction (or shortening) of muscle fibers, layers of smooth muscle in the walls of the stomach and intestines contract to mix and propel food along the gastrointestinal tract; smooth muscle layers in the walls of blood vessels control the distribution of blood, which is propelled by the contraction of the cardiac muscle of the heart. In the eye, smooth muscle fibers adjust the diameter of the pupil and thickness of the lens for optimal vision, while in the skin, contraction of smooth muscles causes the hair to stand up.

Besides serving as organs of support and protection, and providing levers for motion, the bones through the medium of their red marrow manufacture the red blood corpuscles and some types of white blood corpuscles. Another function is that of storage for minerals to be drawn upon when the needs of the body demand a supply of inorganic materials not readily available from the feed.

Ex. 7. Finish the sentences and translate them:

…gives a basis for the external structure and appearance of…

All mammals share a basic body plan…

…is made up of bones that are themselves living…

…is the study of the articulations between…

The muscle cells of skeletal muscle tissue are grouped into distinct organs…

The heat production through shivering is the result of …

…smooth muscle fibers adjust the diameter of the pupil and thickness of …

Ex. 8. Mark the sentences with true (T), false (f), or not stated (NS):

Osteology is the study of the bones that make up the skeleton.

All mammals share a basic body plan with striking differences in skeletal structure.

Joints may be classified by that of anatomy or degree of movement.

The tissue that unites the bones of a joint is generally mucous tissue.

Skeletal muscle fibers exhibit a characteristic striped pattern arising from the orderly arrangement of the contractile proteins within the cells.

Smooth muscle is a major component of the wall of organs of movements.

Contraction of smooth muscles causes the hair to erect.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions.

1.What is the osteology?

2. What is the function of skeleton?

3. From what are the bones made up, what are their functions?

4. What is arthrology?

5. How may joints be classified, what is their function?

6. How many types of muscle do you know? Name them.

7. What do you know about skeletal muscle?

8. Describe smooth muscle?

9. What is cardiac muscle?

10. Name the functions of muscle?

Ex. 10. Find the ing-form and determine is it Participle I or Gerund ?All mammals share a basic body plan with striking similarities in skeletal structure.

hhe functions of bones include providing protection, giving rigidity and form to the body, acting as levers, storing minerals, and forming the cellular elements of blood.

The skeletal muscle is responsible for producing the voluntary movements of the limbs, trunk, and head.

Under the microscope, skeletal muscle fibers exhibit a characteristic striped pattern arising from the orderly arrangement of the contractile proteins within the cells.

The skeletal muscles of respiration move air into and out of the lungs by contracting to change the volume of the thoracic cavity. In addition, heat

Ex. 11. Translate from Russian into English:

Скелет животного состоит из костей, которые в свою очередь являются живыми структурами.

Скелет - это каркас тела, на который крепятся мышцы.

Одной из функций костей является накопление минеральных веществ.

Суставы служат для соединения костей, прикрепляясь к ним фиброзными тканями.

Существует три типа мышц: скелетные, гладкие и сердечные.

Скелетные мышцы осуществляют движение тела, конечностей и головы.

Гладкие мышцы являются составляющим компонентом внутренних органов.

Сердечная мышца –это составляющая стенок сердца, отвечающая за кровообращение.

Ex. 12. Retell the text using the ex. 9.

UNIT 4THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the international words and scientific terms :digestive system, mucous membrane, primary functions, absorption of food, pharynx, esophagus, glandular stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, gland, salivary glands, liver, pancreas, diaphragm, the components of the digestive tract, abdominal and pelvic cavities, microorganisms, production and secretion.

Ex. 2. Define parts of speech and translate the words:

tion – function, mastication, digestion, absorption, elimination

ity – cavity, majority, similarity, motility

ive – nutritive, distinctive, digestive

al – external, several, histological, esophageal, abdominal

ly – unfortunately, directly, correspondently, immediately

ous – mucous, continuous, nutritious, squamous

Ex. 3. Vocabulary to the text. Learn new words:

Digestive пищеварительный

Mouth рот

Mastication жевание

Constituents составляющие

Compounds соединения

Pharynx глотка

Esophagus пищевод

Ruminants жвачные

Glandular железистый

Small intestine тонкий кишечник

Large intestine толстый кишечник

Rectum прямая кишка

Duodenum 12-перстная кишка

Salivary glands слюнная железа

Liver печень

Pancreas поджелудочная железа

Abdominal and pelvic cavities брюшная и тазовая полость

Rumen рубец

Mucus слизистая

Reticulum преджелудок (сетка)

Omasum книжка

Abomasum сычуг

Reticular groove ретикулярный паз

Sulcus борозда

Bolus пилюля

Gastric pits желудочные ямки

Bloat (acute tympany) запор

Squamous epithelium чешуйчатый эпителий

Distal дистальный

Epiglottis надгортанник

Gallbladder- желчный пузырь

Bile- желчь

Tongue- язык

Stomach- желудок

Ex. 4. Match the synonyms:

Continuous a) progressive

Absorb b) prevent

Building c) fluid

Consists of d) to subject

Simple e)availability

Presence f)take up

Protect g)make up

Liquid h)common

To affect i) to decrease

To shorten j) construction

Ex. 5. Read the text find English equivalents for the Russian ones:

1) жевание; 2) мышечная трубка; 3) поглощение и использование; 4) включение; 5) рассеянные; 6) камера; 7) полость; 8) отдел; 9) мозговой ствол; 10) объемные карманы.

Ex. 6. Translate the text:

Text

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system (digestive tract) consists of a muscular tube lined with mucous membrane that is continuous with the external skin at the mouth and at the anus. Its primary functions are mastication, digestion, and absorption of food, and elimination of solid wastes. The digestive system reduces the nutritious constituents of the food to molecular compounds that are small enough to be absorbed and used for energy and for building other compounds for incorporation into body tissues.

Elements of the digestive system are the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, forestomach (ruminants), glandular stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and the accessory glands (salivary glands, liver, and pancreas).

Caudal to the diaphragm, the components of the digestive tract lie within the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Here they are invested with a simple squamous epithelium that is also called a mesothelium or serosa. Within these body cavities, the serosa is identified as peritoneum. The base of the tongue folds the epiglottis over the laryngeal opening as it moves back. The pharynx shortens, and a peristaltic (milking) action of the pharyngeal muscles forces the bolus into the esophagus.

The third stage of deglutition consists of reflex peristalsis of the esophagus initiated by the presence of food in the esophagus. Peristalsis consists of alternate relaxation and contraction of rings of muscle in the wall coupled with regional contraction of longitudinal muscles in the area of the bolus. Peristalsis carries solid and semisolid food through the esophagus of the horse at 35 to 40 cm/second. Liquids travel about five times as fast by a squirting action of the mouth and the pharynx. Vomiting is a protective response to remove potentially harmful ingesta from the stomach and upper small intestine. Vomiting is a highly coordinated reflex that is controlled by a reflex center in the brainstem.

The ruminant stomach is actually a single stomach modified by marked expansion of the esophageal region into three distinct and voluminous diverticula, the rumen, reticulum, arid omasum. These are lined with nonglandular stratified squamous epithelium and comprise a series of chambers where food is subjected to digestion by microorganisms before passing through the digestive tract to the smaller glandular portion of the stomach in the ruminant, the abomasum.

The rumen of the simple stomach features several histologically distinct regions whose names are similar to the gross parts of the stomach but that unfortunately do not directly correspond to these.

Exclusive of the esophageal region, the mucosa of the simple stomach is glandular. The cardiac glands that give this region its name are short, branched tubular glands whose major secretoring product is mucus. The equine cardiac gland region is small, but it covers nearly half of the interior of the porcine stomach. Enteroendocrine cells are scattered throughout the mucosa of the glandular stomach. These secrete hormones that affect the secretory arid muscular activity of the gut and its accessory organs (e.g., liver and pancreas).

Ruminoreticulum. Because of their functional and anatomic relatedness, the reticulum and rumen are often collectively called the ruminoreticulum. This is the sulcus ruminoreticulum (variously called the esophageal, gastric, or reticular groove). In nursing ruminants, the act of suckling initiates a reflex contraction of the muscular walls of the sulcus, transforming it from a groove to a closed tube that connects the cardia with the omasum. By this reflex, swallowed milk bypasses the ruminorcticulum and is instead delivered to the more distal parts of the stomach; this ensures that the milk will not be allowed to sour in the forestomach. The reticulum is the most cranial compartment of the forestomach.

Fermentative Digestion. No mammal can directly digest the complex carbohydrates that constitute plant cell walls (cellulose and hemicellulose), because mammals do not produce the enzyme cellulose, which is necessary to break the unique chemical bonds in these compounds. The ruminant forestomach provides an excellent environment for the growth of bacteria, protozoa, and possibly other microbes that do produce cellulose.

Methane and carbon dioxide are produced by fermentative digestion and accumulate as a gaseous layer above the ingesta in the rumen and reticulum. Bloat (acute tympany) results in enlargement of the rumen and reticulum.

Similar to the regulation of gastric secretions, the regulation of gastric motility can be divided into cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases. Stimulation during cephalic regulation occurs via the parasympathetic nerves, and this increases in response to sight, smell, or taste of food. The hormone gastrin stimulates overall gastric motility to promote mixing (gastric phase).

The small intestine is the primary site of chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients. The exocrine secretions of the pancreas contain most of the enzymes for chemical digestion in the rumen of the small intestine, but the epithelial cells that line the small intestine also have in their cell membranes enzymes that participate in the final steps of chemical digestion. Most of the products of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid digestion are absorbed as the digesta pass through the small intestine. The small intestine is also the primary site

The two primary types of movement by the small intestine are segmentation and peristalsis. Segmentation movements, which occur when food is in the small intestine, are characterized by alternating local areas of contraction and relaxation. Strong peristaltic contractions of the small intestine in fasting animals or several hours after a meal propel ingesta down the tract, presumably to clean the small intestine of undigested foodstuffs before the next meal.

Тhe liver is the largest gland of the orgаnism. It plays а great rоlе in the mеtаbоlism of the body. It is situated in the upper right quadrant of the abdominal cavity, and а part of its surface attaches to the diарhrаgm.

The primary digestive function of the liver is to provide bile salts, which facilitate the enzymatic digestion of lipids.Тhе lobule of the liver in cross-section has five, six оr sеvеn sides. Тhе diameter of the cross-section is decidedly smаllеr than the height of the lobule. Liver cells (hepatocytes) arc responsible for bile formation. Bile is a greenish-yellow salt solution consisting primarily of bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipids, and bile pigments (bilirubin). Hepatocytes synthesize the bile salts (primarily sodium salts of glycocholic and taurocholic acids) from cholesterol. These salts assist in digestion and absorption of lipids (triglycerides), and the production and secretion of these salts is the most important digestive function of the liver. In all farm animals except the horse, bile is stored in the gallbladder. It is a small sac which sits just beneath the liver and its only role is to concentrate gall and then release it when food is passing through the small intestine. Since the horse has no gallbladder, the bile passes directly from the liver to the duodenum. The gallbladder stores bile for intermittent discharge into the duodenum and concentrates the bile by reabsorbing water from the stored bile. Since food entering the duodenum stimulates the release of cholecystokinin, this coordinates the release of bile with the presence of food. The liver can eliminate excessive dietary cholesterol via the bile. Cholesterol is insoluble in water, but the bile salts and lecithin normally change it to a soluble form so that it can exist in the bile.

Ex. 7. Finish the sentences and translate them:

Its primary functions are mastication, digestion, and..…with a simple squamous epithelium that is also called a …

The cardiac glands that give this region its name are short, branched …

…region is small, but it covers nearly half of the interior of the porcine stomach.

The reticulum is the most cranial…

…of the small intestine in fasting animals or several hours after a meal propel ingesta down the tract, presumably to clean the small …

…horse has no gallbladder, the bile passes directly from the liver to the duodenum by way of the bile duct and us tributaries at a …

Ex. 8. Mark the sentences with true (T), false (f), or not stated (NS):

The digestive system reduces the nutritious constituents of the food to molecular compounds that are too big to be absorbed and used for energy and for building other compounds for incorporation into body tissues.

Caudal to the diaphragm, the components of the digestive tract lie within the abdominal and pelvic cavities.

This nonglandular region is unlimited in swine and in the horse, in which it lines the saccus cecum.

The primary digestive function of the liver is to provide bile salts, which facilitate the enzymatic digestion of lipids.

Swallowed milk bypasses the ruminorcticulum and is instead delivered to the less distal parts of the stomach; this ensures that the milk will be allowed to sour in the forestomach.

The small intestine is the primary site of absorption for lipids.

In all farm animals except the sheep, bile is stored in the gallbladder.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions.

Give the definition of digestive system.

What are the main functions of digestive system?

What are the main elements of digestive system?

How many compartments does ruminant stomach have?

What is the rumenoreticulum function?

How the regulation of gastric motility can be divided?

What is the intestine, how many compartment does it have?

What are the intestine functions?

What is a liver and what physiological functions does it have?

What is the main function of gallbladder?

Ex. 10. Transform the verbs in the sentences from active into passive voice. Translate the sentences.

The digestive system reduces the nutritious constituents of the food.

The fermentative digestion produces methane and carbon dioxide.

The hormone gastrin stimulates overall gastric motility to promote mixing (gastric phase).

The gallbladder stores bile for intermittent discharge into the duodenum.

The liver can eliminate excessive dietary cholesterol via the bile.

Ex.11 Translate from Russian into English:

1.Основные элементы пищеварительной системы жвачных – это ротовая полость, глотка, пищевод, четырехкамерный желудок, кишечник, печень и желчный пузырь.

2.Пища, попадая в желудочно-кишечный тракт, подвергается ферментации.

3.Желудок жвачных состоит из четырех отделов: рубца, сетки, книжки и сычуга.

4.Кишечник играет важную роль в процессе пищеварения, в нем происходит всасывание микроэлементов и эвакуация отработанных веществ.

5. Печень – это орган, участвующий, как в процессе кроветворения, так и пищеварения.

6. Клетки печени участвуют в образовании желчи, которая накапливается в желчном пузыре и, поступая в двенадцатиперстную кишку, расщепляет жиры.

Ex. 12. Retell the text using the questions from the ex. 9.

UNIT 5RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Ex. Give Russian equivalents for the international words and scientific terms :respiratory system, pharynx, oral and nasal, larynx, substances, trachea, regulate, alveolar, vibration, terminal, diaphragm, gases, pulmonary capillaries, blood plasma, epithelial cell, pulmonary artery, collapsed lung.

Ex. 2. Transform the verbs into the nouns:

1. to include

2. to maintain

3. to contract

4. to protect

5. to solve

6. to create

7. to bound

8. to enter

9. to present

10. to divide

Ex. 3. Vocabulary to the text. Learn new words:

respiratory system – дыхательная система

pharynx – глотка

oral and nasal cavities – ротовая и носовая полости

middle ears – среднее ухо

the larynx – гортань

unpaired cartilages – непарные хрящи

hence – следовательно

vocal ligament – голосовые связки

lobar – долевая

cartilaginous plates – хрящевые пластины

alveolar ducts – альвеолярный проток

cluster – кластер (слой)

thorax – грудная клетка

thoracic vertebrae – грудной отдел позвоночных

ventral part – брюшная часть

sternum – грудина

inlet – вход

dome – shaped diaphragm-куполообразная диафрагма

pulmonary vessels – легочные сосуды

lung – легкое

lobe – доля

squamous epithelial cell – чешуйчатая эпителиальная клетка

fragile – хрупкий

extracellular fluid – внеклеточная жидкость

Ex. 4. Define are the next words countable or uncountable make them in plural:

Tissue, food, air, tube, ear, cavity, airway, esophagus, size, voice, phonation, swine, abnormality, lung, blood.Ex. 5. Read the text find English equivalents for the Russian ones:

Слуховые трубы, относительно друг друга, изменять натяжение связок,

грудной вход, размер дыхательных путей, ребра и костные хрящи, слияние базальной мембраны, тончайшее место, примерно коническое, отступ.

Ex. 6. Translate the text:

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

The pharynx is a common soft tissue conduit for food and air, lying caudal to the oral and nasal cavities. Openings into the pharynx include the two caudal narcs, two auditory tubes from the middle ears, the oral cavity, the larynx, and the esophagus.

The larynx is the gatekeeper to the entrance of the trachea. It maintains a rigid, boxlike shape via a series of paired and unpaired cartilages that are moved relative to one another by striated laryngeal muscles. The larynx's primary function is to regulate the size of the airway and to protect it by closing to prevent substances other than air from entering the trachea. The larynx is the organ of phonation (vocalization), hence its common name, voice box. Contraction of muscles in the larynx changes the tension on ligaments that vibrate as air is drawn past them; this vibration produces the voice. Horses and swine also possess a vestibular (ventricular) ligament cranial to the vocal ligament.

Animals require a supply of energy to survive. This energy is needed to build large molecules like proteins and glycogen, make the structures in cells, move chemicals through membranes and around cells, contract muscles, transmit nerve impulses and keep the body warm. Animals get their energy from the large molecules that they eat as food. Glucose is often the energy source but it may also come from other carbohydrates, as well as fats and protein. The energy is made by the biochemical process known ascellular respiration that takes place in the mitochondria inside every living cell.

The air in the alveoli is rich in oxygen while the blood in the capillaries around the alveoli is deoxygenated. This is because the haemoglobin in the red blood cells has released all the oxygen it has been carrying to the cells of the body. Oxygen diffuses from high concentration to low concentration. It therefore crosses the narrow barrier between the alveoli and the capillaries to enter the blood and combine with the haemoglobin in the red blood cells to form oxyhaemoglobin.

The narrow diameter of the capillaries around the alveoli means that the blood flow is slowed down and that the red cells are squeezed against the capillary walls. Both of these factors help the oxygen diffuse into the blood (see diagram 9.2).

When the blood reaches the capillaries of the tissues the oxygen splits from the haemoglobin molecule. It then diffuses into the tissue fluid and then into the cells.

Inspiration

The diaphragm is a thin sheet of muscle that completely separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities. When at rest it domes up into the thoracic cavity but during breathing in or inspiration it flattens. At the same time special muscles in the chest wall move the ribs forwards and outwards. These movements of both the diaphragm and the ribs cause the volume of the thorax to increase. Because the pleural cavities are airtight, the lungs expand to fill this increased space and air is drawn down the trachea into the lungs (see diagram 9.4 a).

Expiration

Expiration or breathing out consists of the opposite movements. The ribs move down and in and the diaphragm resumes its domed shape so the air is expelled (see diagram 9.4b). Expiration is usually passive and no energy is required (unless you are blowing up a balloon)

The principal bronchi branches into secondary (also called lobar), then tertiary bronchi, subsequent branches becoming smaller and smaller. The walls of these bronchi are supported by cartilaginous plates. The bronchiole eventually branches into several alveolar ducts, which terminate in clusters of air sacs, the alveoli. It is here that the exchange of gases with the blood takes place. Some terminal bronchioles have alveoli in their walls, hence are called respiratory bronchioles.

The thorax is bounded cranially by the first pair of ribs, the first thoracic vertebra, and the cranial part of the sternum. This ring of skeletal elements is the thoracic inlet. The dorsal part of the thorax is defined by the thoracic vertebrae and axial muscles, and the ventral part, by the sternum. The ribs and costal cartilages, linked by intercostal muscles, create the lateral walls. The overall shape of the thorax is that of a cone with the apex at the thoracic inlet. The base of the cone is covered by the dome-shaped diaphragm.

Each lung is roughly conical, with the base resting against the cranial side of the diaphragm and the apex in or close to the thoracic inlet. The medial aspect of each lung features an indentation, where the principal bronchus, pulmonary vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter and leave the lung. Lobes of the lungs are defined by the presence of lobar (secondary) bronchi.

Gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air in the lungs occurs across the walls of alveoli. At its thinnest point, the alveolar wall barrier between blood plasma and alveolar air consists of the endothelial cell of pulmonary capillaries, a type I squamous epithelial cell lining the alveoli, and a fused basement membrane contributed by both cells. Gases readily move back and forth across this very thin and fragile structure. Any abnormality that thickens this barrier (e.g., pulmonary edema with an accumulation of extracellular fluid in the alveolar wall) can greatly reduce the efficiency of exchange.

The lack of airflow in the collapsed lung means that oxygen and carbon dioxide in alveolar air and a pulmonary capillary. Plasma entering pulmonary capillaries from the pulmonary arteries contains the highest concentration of carbon dioxide and the lowest of oxygen.

To be most efficient, the rate of pulmonary artery blood flow into an area of the lung must be balanced with the rate of air movement in and out of the alveoli in the same area. To appreciate the importance of this balancing, consider an extreme case in which one lung is collapsed so that air movement is impossible, but the collapsed lung receives the same amount of blood flow as the inflated normal lung.

Ex. 7. Finish the sentences and translate them:

… include the two caudal narcs, two auditory tubes from the middle ears, the oral cavity, the larynx, and the esophagus.

… is to regulate the size of the airway and to protect it by closing to prevent substances other…

… into several alveolar ducts, which terminate in clusters of air sacs, the alveoli.

The dorsal part of the thorax is defined … and the ventral part…

… an indentation, where the principal bronchus, pulmonary vessels…

… move back and forth across this very thin and...

…the importance of this balancing, consider an extreme case in which one lung is collapsed so that air movement is impossible, but the collapsed …

Ex. 8 Mark the sentences with true (T), false (F):

The larynx's primary function is to regulate the shape of the airway and to protect it by opening to prevent substances other than air from entering the trachea.

Horses and swine also have a vestibular (ventricular) ligament cranial to the vocal ligament.

Some terminal bronchioles have alveoli in their walls, hence are called the sternum.

The ribs and costal cartilages, connected by intercostal muscles, form the lateral walls.

Gases hardly move back and forth across this very thin and fragile structure.

The lack of airflow in the collapsed lung means that o O2 and CO2in alveolar air and a pulmonary capillary.

The collapsed lung receives the same amount of blood flow as the inflated normal lung.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions.

What is a pharynx?

What are the functions of the larynx?

How a voice may be produced?

Describe the bronchi.

What is the shape and function of thorax?

Describe the lung.

What is the gas exchange?

What does the lack of airflow in the collapsed lung mean?

Why is the rate of pulmonary artery blood flow into an area of the lung must be balanced with the rate of air movement in and out of the alveoli?

What may be happen if one lung is collapsed so that air movement is impossible?

Ex.10 Translate the sentences choose the right form of the modal verbs:

In order to maintain animals in healthy condition farmer (can/must) follow certain sanitary requirements.

Farmers (were able to/ought to) control the epidemic in the region last summer.

I.P. Pavlov was known as a skillful surgeon and he (could\might) do very difficult operations on animals.

Scientists (were able to\ could) elaborate the main principles of animal physiology when they had collected enough experimental data.

Animal health (may\ is to) ensure the efficient production of wholesome animal products.

Ex.11 Translate from Russian into English:

Дыхательная система представлена следующими органами: ротовая и носовая полсти, носоглотка, гортань, трахеи, бронхи, легкие.

Основная функция гортани - регуляция объема поступающего воздуха и защита трахеи от попадания инородных тел.

Гортань также участвует в звукообразовании.

Основные бронхи делятся на вторичные и третичные, соответственно уменьшаясь в размере.

Грудная клетка имеет куполообразную форму, окруженную ребрами, внутри нее расположены легкие.

Легкие позволяют организму, получать кислород при вдохе и выделять углекислый газ при выдохе.

Газообмен кислорода крови и альвеол происходит в тонких альвеолярных стенках легких.

Поток крови в легочной артерии должен быть сбалансирован с количеством вдыхаемого и выдыхаемого воздуха.

Ex. 12. Retell the text using the sentences from the ex. 11.

UNIT 6CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the international words and scientific terms :The cardiovascular system, arteries, veins, pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation, conceptually, central organ, pericardium, muscle organ, pulmonary artery and aorta.

Ex. 2. Translate the next word combinations pay attention to the preposition and unions:

The system consists of, system of vessels, vessels for distribution of the blood to the tissues, whether or not the blood is oxygenated, vessels that carry blood away from, vessels that carry blood toward, back to the heart, out to every part, each round trip in about a minute, which is placed between, coming in and out of it, behind the trunks.

Ex. 3.Vocabulary to the text. Learn new words:

cardiovascular – сердечнососудистая система

heart – сердце

vessel – сосуд

distribution of the blood – кровоснабжение

separate – разделять

low-pressure pump – насос низкого давления

housed – располагаться

pulmonary circulation-малый круг кровообращения (легочный)

systemic circulation – большой круг кровообращения

cone-shaped cavity – коническая полость

apex cordis – верхняя часть сердца

basis cordis – основная часть сердца

auricles – предсердие

ventricles – желудочек

orifices – зазор, отверстие

longitudinal sulcuses – продольные перегородки

trunk – ствол, (туловище)

mitral valve – митральный клапан

aortic valve – аортальный клапан

oxygenated – обогащенный кислородом

supply – снабжать

attach – прикрепляться

back to – назад

round trip – круговорот

partition – перегородка (расчленение)

Ex. 4. Translate the words, what parts of speech do they belong?

Exchange, functionally, returning, supply, breast, vertebral, dorsally, influence, constriction, round, systemic, only, communicate, transversal, destroyed, useful, cavities, separate, pump, inside, anatomically, toward, cardiovascular.

Ex. 5. Read the text find English equivalents for the Russian ones:

Обогащенная кислородом кровь, малый круг кровообращения, большой круг кровообращения, размешаться между легкими, присоединяться к грудной клетке, действовать как насос; полости, которых соединяются; в основании сердца, клапан закрывается, под воздействием сокращений.

Ex. 6. Translate the text:

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and a system of vessels for distribution of the blood to the tissues of the body and to the lungs for exchange of gases. Whether or not the blood is oxygenated, vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries, and vessels that carry blood toward the heart are called veins. Circulation to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) is functionally and anatomically separate from circulation to the rest of the body (systemic circulation). Conceptually, it is therefore useful to regard the heart as two separate pumps housed within the same organ; one is a low-pressure pump that directs blood returning from the body to the lungs (i.e., the pulmonary circulation), and the other is a high-pressure pump that distributes blood to the systemic circulation.

The heart (Greek cardia) is the central and main organ supplying the flow of blood and lymph in vessels. The heart pumps blood to the lungs, back to the heart, out to every part of the body, and back to the heart again.

The blood makes each round trip in about a minute. The heart is evolved into pericardium which is placed between lungs and attached to the breast bone by joints. The heart is attached to the vertebral column by vessels which are coming in and out of it.

The heart present cone-shaped cavity muscle organ. The basis cordis is directed dorsally and apex cordis is directed ventrally. The heart is divided inside into right and left halves by partition. Each half in its turn is divided into auricle and ventricle. The cavities of which are communicated with each other by the vast auricle-ventricle orifices.

Auricles are situated in the basic of the heart. Outside they are separated from ventricles by transversal sulcus. Each auricle forms saclike evagination (heart ear).

Heart ears are situated to the right and to the left from the pulmonary artery and aorta. Ventricles is closed and blood runs into aorta Outside they are

separated from each other by the left and right longitudinal sulcuses. The apex of the heart belong to the left ventricle which is situated behind and somewhat to the left, the right ventricle lies in front and somewhat to the right. Accordingly are situated longitudinal sulcuses.

The blood vessels run in the sulcuses. Behind the trunks of the pulmonary arteries there is aorta. The aortic valve is closed and blood runs into aorta under influence of the constriction of left ventricle. The mitral valve is between the auricle and ventricle. It consists of the two folds. Blood comes from the auricle to the ventricle. The mitral valve is open only in one direction. If the function of the mitral valve is destroyed blood comes backwards. It is the courses the heart disease. The mitral valve is closed and blood runs into arteries. The heart is evolved into pericardium which is placed between the lungs and attached to the breast bone by joints.

Ex. 7. Finish the sentences and translate them:

…system consists of the heart and a system of vessels for distribution of the blood to the tissues…

Pulmonary circulation is functionally and anatomically separate from circulation to the rest…

The heart pumps blood to the lungs, … and back to the heart again.

… is directed dorsally and apex cordis is directed ventrally.

… are situated to the right and to the left from the pulmonary artery and aorta.

… to the left ventricle which is situated behind and somewhat to the left, the right ventricle lies in front and somewhat to the right.

The mitral valve is closed and blood runs…

Ex. 8. Mark the sentences with true (T), false (F):

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and a system of blood vessels.

The heart is the central and main organ supplying the organism with air and the oxygen.

The blood makes each round trip in about an hour.

The heart is attached to the vertebral column by tissues which are coming in and out of it.

The cavities of the heart are communicated with each other by the vast auricle-ventricle orifices.

The aortic valve is opened and blood runs into aorta under influence of the constriction of left ventricle.

The heart is evolved into pericardium which is placed above the lungs and attached to the breast bone by joints.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions.

What does the cardiovascular system consists of?

What is artery?

What is vein?

Describe the pulmonary circulation.

Describe the systemic circulation.

How much time does it take one round blood trip?

What are the auricles and where is it situated?

What are the ventricles and where is it situated?

What are the functions of the aortic valve and the mitral valve?

What may happen if the function of the mitral valve is destroyed?

Ex. 10. Find in the text the verbs in passive voice write them out and translate.

Ex. 11. Translate from Russian into English:

Сердечнососудистая система включает в себя сердце и сосуды, переносящие кровь.

Сосуды, переносящие кровь от сердца к органам называются артерии.

Сосуды, переносящие кровь от органов к сердцу называются вены.

Малый круг кровообращения идет от сердца к легким, здесь кровь обогащается кислородом.

Большой круг кровообращения переносит кровь от сердца ко всем органам и тканям организма.

Один круг кровообращения завершается примерно за одну минуту.

Сердце – это главный орган, перекачивающий кровь, оно расположено за грудиной между легкими.

Сердце – это полый конический мышечный орган, разделенный на левую и правую доли.

Предсердия отделяются от желудочков поперечной перегородкой, которая называется митральный клапан.

Дисфункция митрального клапана приводит к серьезным заболеваниям сердца.

Ex. 12. Retell the text using the sentences from the ex. 10.

UNIT 7THE URINARU SYSTEM

Ex. 1. Without a dictionary give the Russian equivalents of the international words and scientific terms:

The urethra, products, regulate, composition, hormonal functions, reservoir, constituents, filter, plasma, peritoneum, retroperitoneal, location, reflecting, position, abdominal organs, projecting, collected, peripherally.

Ex. 2. Translate the next word combinations pay attention to the preposition and unions:

Remove waste products from the blood, a distensible reservoir for the storage of urine, push the left kidney to the right as far as the median plane or beyond, collecting space within the renal hilus, artery gives off a number of interlobular arteries, the capillaries of the glomerulus coalesce into an efferent arteriole.

Ex. 3. Vocabulary to the text. Learn new words:

urinary system – мочевыделительная система

kidney – почка

ureter – уретра

urinary bladder – мочевой пузырь

tubule – трубочка

coalesce – сливаться

to empty into – впадать в

distensible reservoir – эластичный резервуар

discharge – разгружать,выпускать

reabsorb – поглощать повторно

roughly bean-shaped – грубо бобовидные

equine – жеребец

dorsal part – спинная часть

ventral – брюшная часть

cranial – череп

pendulous – качающийся, висячий, отвислый

pelvis – таз

snugly – плотно

fascia – соединительная оболочка

renal medulla – мозговое вещество почки

descending and ascending loops – нисходящие и восходящие петли

cortex – кора

renal crest – почечный гребень

proximal – проксимальный

distal – дистальный

calyces – чашечка

glomerulus coalesce – клубочки сливаются

Ex. 4. Translate the words, what parts of speech do they belong?

Distensible, storage, discharges, through, reddish-brown, constituent, selectively, filtrate, ultimately, excreting, excesses, roughly, bean-shaped, exceptions, equine, distinctively, dorsal, cavity, each, vertebrae, most slightly, more, complementary, tend.

Ex. 5. Read the text find English equivalents for the Russian ones:

Удалять отходы, определенные гормональные функции, опустошать мочевой пузырь, полезные вещества, задняя часть полости живота, близко прикреплены, в дополнение к, делиться на, проходить вдоль, в регулировании состава жидкости, брать свое название, образовывать сеть капилляров.Ex. 6. Translate the text:

THE URINARY SYSTEM

The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. The paired kidneys remove waste products from the blood, help regulate the composition of plasma, and perform certain hormonal functions. The system of tubules in each kidney coalesces into a single muco-muscular tube, the ureter, which extends caudal to empty into the urinary bladder, a distensible reservoir for the storage of urine. When full, the urinary bladder discharges the urine through the urethra to the outside of the body.

The kidneys are paired reddish-brown organs that filter plasma and plasma constituents from the blood and then selectively reabsorb water and useful constituents from the filtrate, ultimately excreting excesses and plasma waste products. The kidneys of most animals are roughly bean-shaped, with the exceptions among domestic animals of the heart-shaped right equine kidney and the distinctively lobated kidneys of the ox.

The kidneys are in the dorsal part of the abdominal cavity on each side of the aorta and caudal vena cava, just ventral to the first few lumbar vertebrae. In most domestic animals, the right kidney is slightly more cranial than the left, with the cranial pole of the right kidney lying snugly in a complementary fossa of the liver. The left kidney tends to be more pendulous, and in ruminants, the forestomach may push the left kidney to the right as far as the median plane or beyond, particularly when the rumen is full. The kidneys are described as being retroperitoneal in location, reflecting their position outside the peritoneal cavity where they are more closely attached to the abdominal wall by fascia, vessels, and peritoneum than are most other abdominal organs. A tough connective tissue capsule surrounds the entire kidney.

The medial aspect of each kidney features a concavity, the hilus, where arteries and nerves enter the kidney, and the ureter, veins, and lymphatic vessels leave. The wide origin on the ureter in the kidney is the renal pelvis. The renal pelvis receives urine from the collecting tubules of the kidney. The cavity in the kidney that contains the pelvis is the renal sinus. The bovine kidney does not have a renal pelvis, the ureter instead arising directly from the coalescence of individual calyces.

The portion of the kidney immediately surrounding the renal pelvis is the renal medulla, which appears striated because of the radially arranged collecting tubules. In addition to collecting tubules, the medulla also contains some loops of Henle (descending and ascending loops). The medulla is surrounded peripherally by the renal cortex, in which reside the renal corpuscles, the histological units of filtration. The cortex has a granular appearance because of the large number of these renal corpuscles, also found in the cortex are proximal and distal convoluted tubules and other segments of loops of Henle.

The medulla and cortex are arranged in units called lobes, cone-shaped aggregates of renal tissue. The medullar portion of each lobe constitutes a renal pyramid, whose apex, the renal papilla, is directed toward the renal pelvis. In the bovine kidney, each pyramid is associated with one of the grossly obvious lobes of the bovine kidney. In the pig and small ruminants, the adjacent cortices of individual lobes are fused, so that the surface of the kidney appears smooth. The individual nature of the porcine lobes is revealed, however, through the persistence of discrete papillae projecting into the renal pelvis. In the horse and small ruminants, the individual papillae, like the cortex, are fused. Consequently, they present as a single longitudinal ridge, the renal crest, projecting into the renal pelvis. Urine discharged from the collecting tubules of the renal crest is collected in the renal pelvis and from there is delivered to the ureter.

In the kidney of the ox and pig, individual pyramids project into minor calyces, cuplike diverticula of the common collecting space within the renal hilus. These in turn empty into major calyces. These major calyces in the porcine kidney empty into the renal pelvis, hut the bovine kidney has no pelvis, and so the major calyces in this species empty directly into the ureter.

Because of its important role in adjusting the composition of extracellular fluid (including plasma), the blood supply to the kidney is much more extensive than the size of the organ would suggest. The two renal arteries may receive as much as one-fourth of the total cardiac output. Each renal artery enters the hilus of the kidney and divides into a number of relatively large branches, the interlobar arteries. These pass peripherally between pyramids almost to the cortex, where they bend abruptly and become arcuate arteries, which derive their name from the arched manner by which they pass along the junction between cortex and medulla.

Each arcuate artery gives off a number of interlobular arteries that extend into the cortex and in turn give rise to the afferent arterioles. Each afferent arteriole branches repeatedly to form a tufted capillary network called the glomerulus, which is associated with the renal corpuscle. The capillaries of the glomerulus coalesce into an efferent arteriole, which leaves each glomerulus.

Ex. 7. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings:

The paired kidneys remove waste products from the blood, help regulate the composition of plasma,…

When full, the urinary bladder discharges…

The kidneys are in the dorsal part of the abdominal cavity on each side…

The renal pelvis receives urine from …

In the bovine kidney, each pyramid is associated with …

Each renal artery enters the hilus of the kidney and…

The capillaries of the glomerulus coalesce into…

…the urine through the urethra to the outside of the body.

…an efferent arteriole, which leaves each glomerulus.

…and perform certain hormonal functions.

…divides into a number of relatively large branches, the interlobar arteries.

…of the aorta and caudal vena cava, just ventral to the first few lumbar vertebrae.

…the collecting tubules of the kidney.

…one of the grossly obvious lobes of the bovine kidney.

Ex. 8. Mark the sentences with true (T), false (F):

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra.

The kidneys are in the ventral part of the abdominal cavity on each side of the aorta and caudal vena cava, just dorsal to the first few lumbar vertebrae.

The right kidney in most domestic animals, is slightly more cranial than the left, with the cranial pole of the right kidney lying snugly in a complementary fossa of the liver.

A thin connective tissue capsule surrounds the entire kidney.

The bovine kidney has a renal pelvis, the ureter instead arising directly from the coalescence of individual calyces.

Urine discharged from the collecting tubules of the renal crest is gathered in the renal pelvis and from there is delivered to the ureter.

Each renal artery enters the hilus of the kidney and divides into a number of small branches, the interlobar arteries.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions.

What does the urinary system consist of?

What is the function of the kidneys?

What forms do kidneys of animals have?

Where do the kidneys locate?

What surrounds the entire kidney?

What is the renal pelvis? Describe it function.

What is the renal medulla and it function?

What are the lobes of the bovine, the pig and small ruminants kidney?

Describe the blood supply to the kidney.

What is the glomerulus?

Ex. 10. Translate next sentences match Gerund:

Growing corn is important for some cattle farms.

Growing condition for corn should be favorable.

The system of growing calves on pasture is very economical.

The way of keeping calves on pasture is more comfortable in this region.

The recording of individual performance in breeding populations of farm animals developed rapidly.

Ex. 11. Translate from Russian into English:

Почки – это парный орган, который фильтрует кровь, регулируя состав плазмы.

Почки расположены в задней части полости живота.

Каждая почка имеет вогнутый хилус, где артерии и нервы входят в почку и мочеточник, а вены и лимфатические сосуды – покидают.

Часть почки, непосредственно примыкающей к почечной лоханке является мозговое вещество почки, которое является поперечно – полосатой из-за радикально расположенных собирающих канальцев.

Мозговая часть почки также содержит петли Генля – нисходящие и восходящие петли.

Сердцевина и кора расположены в долях почки, состоящих из почечной ткани.Моча выделяется из собирательных канальцев и поступает в уретру.

Ex. 12. Retell the text using the sentences from the ex. 9.

CONTROL TESTPhysiology is a study of…

is the study of the functions animal organ systems

problems of sterility and nutritional disorders

is a study of the origination of various species

What sciences are based on physiology research

physics

mechanics

biochemistry

What does term anatomy mean?

principles of body movement

a constitution of a body and organs

functions of the parts of the body

What is embryology?

is a study of the structures of various species of animals

is the study of anatomy, from the period of fertilization of the egg to birth

is the study of the form and relations of the structures of the body that can be seen

with the unaided eye.

What is comparative anatomy?

is a study of the structures of various species of animals, with particular emphasis on those characteristics that aid in classification

is the study of developmental anatomy, covering the period from conception (fertilization of the egg) to birth

is the study of tissues and cells that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope

What is the histology?

is the study of tissues and cells that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope.

is the study of developmental anatomy, covering the period from conception (fertilization of the egg) to birth

is the study of the form and relations of the structures of the body that can be seen with the unaided eye.

What is the osteology?

the study of the articulations (unions) between bones

the study of the bones that make up the skeleton

the study of the functions of bones

What is the function of skeleton?

skeleton forms the tissues and cells, which help the body to move

sskeleton gives a basis for the external structure and appearance of most vertebrate animals.

form the relations of the structures of the body

What is arthrology?

is the study of the articulations (unions) between bones, which are commonly called joints

is a study of the structures of various species of animals

is the study of developmental anatomy

What is cardiac muscle?

is a major component of the wall of organs of the digestive and urogenital systems and most blood vessels

the bulk of the muscle in the body attached to the bones of the skeleton

is characterized by fibers with visible striations, so it is considered a type of striated muscle

What are the main functions of digestive system?

are digestion, and absorption of food and mastication

are mastication, digestion, and absorption of food, and elimination of solid wastes

are elimination of solid wastes and absorption of food

What are the main elements of digestive system

are the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, forestomach (ruminants) rectum, and the accessory glands (salivary glands, liver, and pancreas).

glandular stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and the accessory glands (salivary glands, liver, and pancreas).

all of the above

How many compartments does ruminant stomach have?

One

Two

Three

Four

What are the intestine functions?

elimination of solid wastes and absorption for vitamins

digestion, and absorption of food and water

absorption for vitamins, minerals, water and elimination of solid wastes

What is the main function of gallbladder?

is to concentrate gall and then release it when food is passing through the small intestine.

is to provide bile salts, which facilitate the enzymatic digestion of lipids

is the primary site of chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients

What is a pharynx?

is a common soft tissue conduit for food and air, lying caudal to the oral and nasal cavities

is the gatekeeper to the entrance of the trachea

is the organ of phonation (vocalization), hence its common name, voice box

What are the functions of the larynx?

is the gatekeeper to the entrance of the trachea

is the organ of phonation (vocalization), hence its common name, voice box

is a common soft tissue conduit for food and air

What is the shape of thorax?

is a cone with the apex at the thoracic inlet.

is roughly conical, with the base resting against the cranial side of the diaphragm

is the base of the cone is covered by the dome-shaped diaphragm.

What is the gas exchange?

is the exchange between the blood and alveolar air in the lungs occurs across the walls of alveoli

is the exchange between epithelial cell lining the alveoli, and a fused basement membrane contributed by both cells

is the exchange between the alveolar air in the lungs

What may be happen if one lung is collapsed so that air movement is impossible?

the collapsed lung receives the same amount of blood flow as the inflated normal lung

plasma entering pulmonary capillaries from the pulmonary arteries contains the highest concentration of carbon dioxide and the lowest of oxygen

lack of airflow in the collapsed lung means that oxygen and carbon dioxide in alveolar air are the same in a pulmonary capillary

What does the cardiovascular system consists of?

the heart and vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries

the heart and vessels that carry blood toward the heart are called veins

the heart and a system of vessels for distribution of the blood to the tissues of the body and to the lungs for exchange of gases.

What is artery?

vessels that carry blood away from the heart

vessels that carry blood toward the heart

vessels that carry blood away from the lung

What is vein?

vessels that carry blood away from the lung

vessels that carry blood away from the heart

vessels that carry blood toward the heart

.How much time does it take one round blood trip?

about a half of a minute

about a minute

about two minutes

What are the auricles and where is it situated?

auricles are situated in the basic of the heart forming a saclike heart ear

auricles form the greater part of the heart, outside they are separated from each other by the left and right longitudinal sulcuses

auricles are situated to the right and to the left from the pulmonary artery and aorta

What are the ventricles and where is it situated?

ventricles form the greater part of the heart outside they are separated from each other by the left and right longitudinal sulcuses

ventricles are situated to the right and to the left from the pulmonary artery and aorta

ventricles are situated in the basic of the heart forming a saclike heart ear

What are the functions of the aortic valve?

the aortic valve is closed and blood runs into aorta under influence of the constriction of left ventricle

the aortic valve is open only in one direction and blood comes from the auricle to the ventricle

the aortic valve is between the auricle and ventricle. It consists of the two folds

What are the functions of the mitral valve?

the mitral valve is open only in one direction

the mitral valve is closed and blood runs into aorta

the mitral valve is closed and blood runs out from the aorta

What may happen if the function of the mitral valve is destroyed?

blood comes backwards

blood doesn’t come backwards

blood overcomes the heart

What does the urinary system consist of?

the urinary bladder, and the urethra

two ureters, the urinary bladder

two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra

What is the function of the kidneys?

remove waste products from the blood, help regulate the composition of plasma, and perform certain hormonal function

help regulate the composition of plasma, and perform certain hormonal function

remove waste products from the blood, help regulate the composition of plasma

What forms do kidneys of animals have?

roughly bean-shaped, heart-shaped right kidney, lobulated kidneys

lobulated kidneys, heart-shaped right kidney

roughly bean-shaped, heart-shaped right kidney

Where do the kidneys locate?

are in the right part of the abdominal cavity on each side of the vein and caudal vena cava, just ventral to the first few lumbar vertebrae

are in the dorsal part of the abdominal cavity on each side of the aorta and caudal vena cava, just ventral to the first few lumbar vertebrae

are in the frontal part of the dorsal cavity on each side of the aorta and caudal vena cava, just ventral to the first few lumbar vertebrae

What is the renal medulla and it function?

the portion of the kidney immediately surrounding the renal pelvis is the renal medulla, which appears striated because of the radially arranged collecting tubules

the portion of the kidney immediately receives urine from the collecting tubules of the kidney.

the portion of the cavity in the kidney that contains the pelvis is the renal sinus

What is the glomerulus?

Each afferent arteriole branches repeatedly to form a tufted capillary network

Each arcuate artery gives off a number of interlobular arteries that extend into the cortex and in turn give rise to the afferent arterioles

Each renal artery enters the hilus of the kidney and divides into a number of relatively large branches

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGTasks:

1. Read and translate the text

2. Give the annotation to the text

TEXT 1

THE ANATOMY OF THE PIG

Circulatory system. Pigs, like all mammals, have a four chambered heart. Blood enters the right atrium via the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood is then pumped into the right ventricle from where it is pumped to the lungs to be oxygenated via the pulmonary arteries. Oxygen-rich blood is then pumped through the left atrium and into the left ventricle. Location of the fetal heart will show that the walls of the left ventricle are thicker than those of the other chambers. This is due to fact that the muscle of the left ventricle must be strong enough to pump oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. The aortic arch of a fetal pig has two arteries attached to it, the brachiocephalic artery and the subclavian artery. As the aorta descends, it splits into two large iliac arteries. An umbilical artery branches near the base of each iliac artery. The umbilical arteries run through the umbilical cord, carrying blood 45 to the maternal placenta where it becomes oxygenated, nutrient-rich, and free of waste. This oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood is then returned to the liver of the fetus via the umbilical vein. There are only a few differences between the circulatory system of an adult pig and a fetal pig, besides from the umbilical arteries and vein. There is a shunt between the wall of the right and left atrium called the foramen ovale. This allows blood to pass directly from the right to left atrium.

There is also the ductus arterius which allows blood from the right atrium to be diverted to the aortic arch. Both of these shunts close a few minutes after birth. Digestive system. The monogastric digestive system of the fetal pig harbors many similarities with many other mammals. The fetal pig's digestive organs are well developed before birth, although it does not ingest food. These organs include the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines. Mesenteries serve to connect the organs of the fetal pig together. In order for digestion to occur, the fetal pig would have to ingest food. Instead, it gains much needed nutrition from the mother pig via the umbilical cord. In the adult pig, food will follow the general flow through the esophagus, which can be located behind the tracheae. From the oral cavity, the esophagus leads to the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.

Other organs developing during fetal pig development such as the gallbladder, pancreas and spleen are all critical in contributing to the overall flow of the digestive system. After being digested and absorbed, the food follows through the large intestine and is excreted through the rectum and anus. In the fetal pig however, the metabolic wastes are sent back to the mother through the umbilical cord where the mother excretes the wastes. Other remaining wastes remain in the fetal pig until birth. The oral cavity of the fetal pig begins developing before birth. The tongue's taste buds, located in the enlarged papillae, facilitate food handling after birth. These taste buds develop during fetal development. Adult pigs have up to 15,000 taste buds, a much larger number than the average human tongue, which has 9,000. The dental anatomy of the fetal pig shows differences from adult pigs. The fetal pig develops primary teeth (which are later replaced with permanent teeth). Some may erupt during fetal stage, which is why some of the pigs that are/will be dissected show evidence of teeth. Depending on the age of the fetal pig, it is natural to see eruptions of third incisor and canine in the fetal pig. Because the fetal pigs were still in the mother’s uterus, teeth will still form which supports reasons for hollow unerupted teeth that may be seen during the dissection. Similar to human dental anatomy, the overall dental anatomy of the pig consists of incisors, canines, pre-molars, and molars. Exploring the dental anatomy even further, piglets can have 28th teeth total and adult pigs can have 44 teeth total. If you would like to compare this to the dental anatomy of a human, there are 20 primary teeth and 28–30 permanent teeth.

Urogenital system of a female pig. The fetal pig urogenital system is similar to the adult pig's system with the exception of the reproductive organs. The fetal pig urinary track is relatively developed and easy to locate during dissection. The kidneys are located behind the abdominal organs and are partially embedded into the dorsal body wall by the spine. The ureters carry the urine to the urinary bladder, the large sack-like organ by the umbilical artery and vein, to the urethra. From there, the urine can be excreted. To externally determine if the fetal pig is a female, there will be a fleshy protrusion ventral near the anus called the genital papilla.

Reproductive system. The female's internal reproductive system is located below the kidneys. The two sac-like organs attached to the coil-like fallopian tubes are the ovaries. The uterus, which becomes the vagina, is located where the fallopian tubes meet. This system can be difficult to find as it is small as well as extremely dorsal and posterior to the other systems. Male: to externally determine if the fetal pig is male, look for the urogenital opening located behind the umbilical cord. Also note the swelling behind the hind legs of the fetal pig. This will be the scrotum. The male's internal reproductive system has two scrotal sacs, which depending on the age of the fetal pig may or may not have developed testes. The epididymis coil on the testes connects to the vas deferens. The vas deferens crosses over the ureter and enters the urethra, which then connects to the penis located just posterior to the skin. Similar to the female system, the male system may also be difficult to identify all parts. If the fetal pig is indeed male, take caution to not cut very deep into the scrotum when dissecting. (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

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TEXT 2

THE ANATOMY OF THE SHEEP

Sheep are raised for fleece, meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk. Ewes typically weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, and the rams between 45 and 160 kilograms. Teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth. As with other ruminants, the eight incisors are in the lower jaw and bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw; picking off vegetation. There are no canines; instead there is a large gap between the incisors and the premolars. Until the age of four (when all the adult teeth have erupted), it is possible to see the age of sheep from their front teeth, as a pair of incisors erupts each year. The front teeth are gradually lost as sheep age, making it harder for them to feed and hindering the health. The average life expectancy of a sheep is 10 to 12 years, though some sheep may live as long as 20 years. Hearing. Vision.

Sheep have good hearing, and are sensitive to noise when being handled. Sheep have horizontal slit-shaped pupils, possessing excellent peripheral vision; with visual fields of approximately 270° to 320°, sheep can see behind themselves without turning their heads. However, sheep have poor depth perception; shadows and dips in the ground may cause sheep to 48 balk. In general, sheep have a tendency to move out of the dark and into well-lit areas, and prefer to move uphill when disturbed.

Sense of smell. Sheep also have an excellent sense of smell, and, like all species of their genus, have scent glands just in front of the eyes, and interdigitally on the feet. The foot glands might also be related to reproduction, but alternative reasons, such as secretion of a waste product or a scent marker to help lost sheep find their flock, have also been proposed.

Digestive system. Like all ruminants, sheep have a complex digestive system composed of four chambers, allowing them to break down cellulose from stems, leaves, and seed hulls into simpler carbohydrates. When sheep graze, vegetation is chewed into a mass called a bolus, which is then passed into the first chamber: the rumen. The rumen is a 19 to 38-liter organ in which feed is fermented via a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria, protozoa, and yeasts of the gut flora. The bolus is periodically regurgitated back to the mouth as cud for additional chewing and salivation. Cud chewing is an adaptation allowing ruminants to graze more quickly in the morning, and then fully chew and digest feed later in the day. This is beneficial as grazing, which requires lowering the head, leaves sheep vulnerable to predators, while cud chewing does not. After fermentation in the rumen, feed passes in to the reticulum and the omasum; special feeds such as grains may bypass the rumen altogether. After the first three chambers, food moves in to the abomasum for final digestion before processing by the intestines. The abomasum is the only one of the four chambers analogous to the human stomach (being the only one that absorbs nutrients for use as energy), and is sometimes called the “true stomach”.

Reproduction. Most sheep are seasonal breeders, although some are able to breed year-round. Ewes generally reach sexual maturity at six to eight months of age, and rams generally at four to six months. Ewes have estrus cycles about every 17 days, during which they emit a scent and indicate readiness through physical displays towards rams. A minority of sheep displays: a preference for homosexuality (8 % on average) or freemartins (female animals that are behaviorally masculine and lack functioning ovaries). After mating, sheep have a gestation period of about five months, and normal labor may take one to three hours. Although some breeds may regularly throw larger litters of lambs, most produce single or twin lambs. During or soon after labor, ewes and lambs may be confined to small lambing jugs, small pens designed to aid both careful observation of ewes and to cement the bond between them and their lambs. After the birth, ewes ideally break the amniotic sac (if it is not broken during labor), and begin licking clean the lamb. Most lambs will begin standing within an hour of birth. In normal situations, lambs nurse after standing, receiving vital colostrums milk. Lambs that either fail to nurse or that is rejected by the ewe require aid to live, such as bottle-feeding or fostering by another ewe. 49 Castration is performed on ram lambs not intended for breeding, although some shepherds choose to avoid the procedure for ethical, economic or practical reasons. Ram lambs that will either be slaughtered or separated from ewes before sexual maturity are not usually castrated. (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

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TEXT 3

THE ANATOMY OF THE CATTLE

Cattle are raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal), as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals (pulling carts, plows and the like). Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel. In some countries such, as India, cattle are sacred.

Cattle have one stomach with four compartments. They are rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, with the rumen being the largest compartment.The reticulum, the smallest compartment, is known as the “honey comb”. Cattle sometimes consume metal objects which are deposited in the reticulum and irrigation from the metal objects causing hardware disease. The omasum’s main function is to absorb water and nutrients from the digestible feed. The omasum is known as the “many plies”. The abomasums is like the human stomach; this is why it is known as the “true stomach”. Cattle are ruminants. They have a digestive system that allows use of otherwise indigestible foods by repeatedly regurgitating and rechewing them as “cud”.These microbes are primarily responsible for decomposing cellulose and other carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids that cattle use as their primary metabolic fuel.

The microbes inside the rumen are also able to synthesize amino acids from nonprotein nitrogenous sources, such as urea and ammonia. As these microbes reproduce in the rumen, older generations die and their carcasses continue on through the digestive tract. These carcasses are then partially digested by the cattle, allowing them to gain a high quality protein source. These features allow cattle to thrive on grasses and other vegetation. The gestation period for a cow is nine months. A newborn calf weighs 25–45 kg (55 to 99 lb). Breeding stock usually lives to about 15 years (occasionally as much as 25 years). (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

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GLOSSARYWord Meaning

A Abdomen The part of the body below the diaphragm

Abomasum The final compartment of the stomach of ruminants.

This the ‘true’ stomach where muscular walls churn

the food and gastric juice is secreted

Accessory gland A gland that produces secretions that make up the liquid portion of semen

Adrenal cortex Outer portion of adrenal gland

Adrenal medulla Inner portion of adrenal gland

Alimentary Concerning nutrition

Alveolus An air sac in the lung, where gas exchange takes place

Antagonistic muscles A pair of muscles that work together such that as one contracts the other relaxes and vice versa.

Anterior pituitary gland Anterior portion of pituitary gland

Antigens A substance that stimulates the body to produce an antibody

Anus The opening at the lower end of the rectum through which solid waste is eliminated.

Aorta The main artery to body and head from heart

Apex The pointed end of a cone shaped structure e.g. heart

Arteriole A small, almost microscopic, artery

Artery A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

Articulation The point of contact between bones. Where they move against each other

Atlas First cervical vertebra

Atom A unit of matter that comprises a chemical element

Atrioventricular valve A valve that prevents blood flow backwards from ventricle to atrium

Atrium (pl. atria) One of two cranial chambers of heart

Autonomic nervous system The part of the vertebrate nervous system that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and

glandular tissues and governs involuntary actions. Consists of the sympathetic nervous

system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

Axis The second cervical vertebra

B Ball and socket joint A synovial joint where rounded end of one bone fits into cup-shaped depression of another

Barb The part of the feather that sticks out of the shaft

Basement membrane The thin membrane between epidermis and dermis

Bile An alkaline secretion from liver that helps break down fats into small droplets

Binocular vision The placement of the eyes such that both see the same wide area but from slightly different angles

Binomial The two-part Latinized name of a species, consisting of genus and species names

Blind spot The area of retina at end of optic nerve where there are no receptor cells

Blood The fluid that circulates in the blood vessels

Blood pressure The pressure of blood on the walls of the blood vessels

Body cavity A space within the body that contains various organs

Bowman’s capsule The double walled globe at proximal end of nephron. Encloses glomerulus

Breed A race or variety

Bronchiole A branch of the bronchi in the respiratory system

Bronchus One of the large branches of the trachea

C Callus A thickening of the skin or growth of new bone tissue in and around a fracture

Carbohydrate An organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Made up of sugar subunits

Cardiac cycle A complete heartbeat consisting of systole and diastole

Cardiac muscle The muscle that makes up the wall of the heart. Striated branched fibres

Cardiovascular system The body system comprising the heart, blood vessels and blood

Carotid artery The artery from aorta that supplies the head and brain

Carpal A bone of the “wrist”

Cartilage Dense connective tissue found at ends of long bones, in trachea, ear pinna. Also forms the skeleton of the foetus

Caudal Nearer to the tail than

Cellular respiration The chemical pathway that produces energy in the cell

It consumes a fuel, generally glucose, in the presence of oxygen

Central nervous system The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord

Cerebellum The part of the vertebrate hindbrain located dorsally; functions in unconscious coordination of movement and balance

Cerebral cortex The surface of the cerebrum; the largest and most complex part of the mammalian brain, containing sensory and motor nerve cell bodies of the cerebrum

Cerebrospinal fluid The fluid that circulates around and within brain and spinal cord

Cerebrum The dorsal portion of the brain composed of right and left hemispheres;

the integrating center for memory, learning, emotions

Cervical vertebrae The neck vertebrae

Cervix The neck of the uterus

Choroid The middle coat of the eyeball

Chyle The milky fluid found in the lacteals of the small intestine

Chyme The semi fluid mixture of partly digested food and digestive secretions in the stomach and small intestine

Class The taxonomic grouping of related, similar orders; category above order and below phylum

Clavicle The collar bone

Clot The process that changes liquid blood to a gelatinous mass

Coagulation The process by which blood clots

Coccyx The tail bones

Coccygeal vertebrae The vertebrae of the tail

Cochlea The coiled tube forming the portion of the inner ear that converts sound waves to nerve impulses

Collagen A protein that is the main organic constituent of connective tissue

Colon Part of the large intestine.

Colostrum The first milk, it contains antibodies.

Common bile duct The duct that carries both bile and pancreatic juice into the small intestine

Compact bone Dense bone made up of Haversian systems

Conditioned Reflex The response that is elicited by a stimulus after training has taken place

Condyle A rounded protuberance at the ends of some bones where it forms an articulation with another bone

Cone A light sensitive receptor in the retina that responds to colour

Congenital Present at the time of birth

Conjunctiva The delicate membrane covering the cornea of the eye

Connective tissue One of the 4 basic tissue types of the body. Binds and supports. Consists of cells and fibres in a matrixs

Constipation Decreased defecation due to decreased mobility of the intestines

Cornea The transparent anterior layer of the eye through which the iris can be seen

Coronary artery The artery that supplies the heart muscle

Corpus luteum A yellow endocrine gland formed in the empty ovarian follicle after ovulation

Cortex The outer layer of an organ

Costal To do with a rib

Cranial Towards the head

Cranial nerve One of the 12 nerves that leave the brain

Cranium The brain case that surrounds and protects the brain

Crop The bag-like structure at the base of the oesophagus in birds.In many birds it stores food before it enters the stomachA

Crop-milk Secretion produced by glands in the wall of the crop of in pigeons and doves Parents regurgitate it to feed their young

Cytology The study of cells

D Dental formula The formula that describes the numbers of the different kinds of teeth

Dentine The tissue below the enamel in teeth

Dermis The layer of dense connective tissue lying under the epidermis

Diabetes mellitus The condition caused by under secretion of insulin. Symptoms: raised blood glucose levels, glucose in urine

Diaphragm The dome shaped skeletal muscle separating the thoracic from the abdominal cavities

Diaphysis The shaft of a long bone

Diastole The phase of the heartbeat involving the relaxation of the ventricles

Diastolic blood pressure Blood pressure in the arteries between the passage of the pulses

Diffusion A passive process of movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration

Digestion The mechanical and physical breakdown of food

Digitigrade locomotion Locomotion on the “fingers” as in cats and dogs

Directional terms Terms that describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures or locations in the body

Distal Farther away from the trunk of the body or point of origin

Dorsal Nearer the back of the animal than

Duodenum First part of the small intestine

E Effector A muscle or gland that responds to a motor neuron impulse

Egestion The elimination of indigestible waste products from the body

Emulsification The breakdown of large fat particles to smaller ones in the presence of bile

Endometrium The inner lining of the uterus

Endoplasmic reticulum The network of membranous channels running through the cytoplasm of cells

Endothelium The layer of squamous epithelium that lines blood vessels

Epidermis The thin outer layer of the skin

Epididymis The organ composed of convoluted tubules that lies on the border of the testis Where sperm mature

Epiglottis The cartilage on the top of the larynx that closes the windpipe during swallowing

Epiphysis The end of a long bone

Epithelial tissue Tissue that forms outer part of skin, lines blood vessels, hollow organs and passages in the body

Essential amino acids The 10 amino acids that can not be made by animals and must be acquired in the diet

Exocrine gland A gland that secretes substances into a duct

Expiration Breathing out

Extension Bending of a joint so that the angle between the bones increases

F Fats Biological compounds consisting of three fatty acids linked to one

glycerol molecule

Femur The long bone between the pelvis and the knee

Fetlock The joint between the metacarpals or metatarsals and the phalanges in horse

Fibrin The insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen

Fibrinogen The protein in blood plasma essential for blood clotting

Fibula The lateral bone of the lower hind limb

Filtrate The fluid produced by filtration of blood in the nephron

Flexion The movement involving decreasing the angle between two bones

Foetus Later stage of development of a young animal

Foramen A hole in a bone for passage of vessels or nerves

Foramen magnum The hole at the base of the skull for passage of the spinal cord

Fossa A furrow or shallow depression in a bone

Functional caecum The enlarged large intestine and caecum occupied by cellulose digesting micro-organisms

G Gall bladder The small pouch that stores bile

Gas exchange The process in which oxygen from inhaled air is transferred into the blood and

carbon dioxide from the blood is transferred into the alveoli

Gastric juice The digestive secretion produced by glands in the wall of the stomach

Gestation The period of foetal development inside the uterus

Girdle An encircling or arching arrangement of bones

Gizzard The second part of the stomach of birds. In seed eating birds it contains pebbles and its muscular walls help grind the food

Gland A collection of cells that secrete substances

Gliding joint A synovial joint with flat articulating surfaces that permits limited movements e.g. between carpals and tarsals

Glomerulus Tuft of capillaries surrounded by the Bowman’s capsule in nephron

Glottis Vocal cords

Goitre A condition involving enlargement of thyroid gland

Growth hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Stimulates growth, particularly of the skeleton

H Haematuria Urine that contains red blood cells

Haemoglobin Pigment containing iron in red blood cells that allows them to carry oxygen

Haversian canal The canal down centre of a Haversian system

Haversian system The columns of boney tissue that make up compact bone

Heparin A naturally occurring anticoagulant. Also used in laboratory tests for heavy metals

Hepatic To do with the liver

Hepatic portal vessel The blood vessel that carries blood from the intestines to the liver

Hinge joint A synovial joint that allows movement in only one plane e.g. elbow

Histamine A substance secreted from white cells and platelets that is involved in the inflammatory response

Hock The joint (between the tarsals and metatarsals

Humerus The bone of the upper forearm between the scapula and the radius and ulna

Hypertension High blood pressure

Hyperthermia High body temperature

Hypertonic Having an osmotic pressure higher than a solution with which it is compared

Hypotension Low blood pressure

Hypotonic Having an osmotic pressure lower than a solution with which it is compared

I

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Ileum The terminal part of the small intestine

Incisors The chisel-shaped ‘biting off’ teeth at the front of the mouth

Induced ovulation When ovulation is stimulated by mating as in cat and rabbit

Inferior Towards the lower part of the body. Not used in animals except, perhaps, higher apes

Infertility The inability to conceive or cause conception

Inflammation A localised protective response to tissue injury

Ingestion The taking in of food, liquids etc.

Inguinal To do with the groin

Inorganic Compounds that lack carbon

Insertion The attachment of a muscle tendon to a bone that moves

Inspiration Breathing in

Insulin A hormone produced by the pancreas. Decreases blood glucose levels

Internal Away from the surface of the body

Interstitial fluid Extracellular fluid surrounding the cells

Intervertebral disc A pad of cartilage between the vertebrae

Intestinal juice Digestive secretion produced by glands in the lining of the small intestine

Intracellular fluid Fluid within the cells

Invertebrates Animals that do not posses a backbone or vertebral column

J Jejunum The middle portion of the small intestine

K Keel The breast bone in birds

Keratin A protein found in epidermis, hair, feathers, hoofs etc.

Kidney The organ that produces urine

L Lachrymal gland The tear gland of the eye

Lactation

The secretion and ejection of milk by mammary glands|

Large intestine Part of the gut consisting of the colon, caecum, rectum and anal canal

Larynx The voice box

Lateral Away from the midline

Liver The large organ caudal to the diaphragm

Longitudinal Lengthwise slice of an animal or organ

Lordosis response Standing firm to pressure on the loin region

Lumbar Loin region of the back

Lumen A space within an artery, vein, intestine or tube

Lung The organs of respiration

Luteinising hormone The hormone from the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation and development of corpus luteum

M Mammary gland The milk producing gland

Mandible The bone of the lower jaw

Marrow The soft sponge like material in the cavities of bone

Matrix The substance of a tissue in which the more specialised structures are embedded

Maxilla The bone of the upper jaw

Medial Towards the midline

Medulla Inner part of an organ

Medulla oblongata The part of the brain stem or hind brain

Meninges The membranes covering the brain and spinal cord

Mesentery The membrane attaching the small intestine to the abdominal wall

Metacarpals The bones of the “hand”

Microfilaments A solid contracting strand in the cytoplasm of cells that brings about cell contraction.

Microvilli The microscopic fingerlike projections from the membrane of the cells covering the villi of the small intestine

Mucus A thick fluid secretion

N Nasal cavity The space just inside the nostril

Neurotransmitter Molecules released at a synapse to transmit the nerve impulse from one neuron to the next

Neutral fat A fat or triglyceride. Biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule

Neutrophil White blood cell with granules in the cytoplasm involved in phagocytosis

Nictitating membrane The third eyelid in the cat, tuatara and crocodiles

Normal saline A 0.9% solution of sodium chloride

Nuclear membrane The double layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus

Nucleolus The spherical body within the nucleus, containing RNA

Nucleus The spherical or oval body in the cell that contains the DNA

Nutrient A chemical substance in food that provides energy or assists various body processes

O Oesophagus The hollow muscular tube connecting the pharynx with stomach

Omasum Part of the modified stomach of ruminants with a folded inner surface

Organ A structure with a specific function

Origin The attachment of a muscle to a bone that does not move

Ossicle A small bone

Ossification The formation of bone

Otolith A particle of calcium carbonate embedded in the membrane of the otolith organ of the inner ear

Ovary The female gonad that produces ova

Ovulation The release of the ovum from the mature follicle of the ovary

Ovum The egg cell (plural: ova)

P Pancreas The organ lying along the caudal margin of the stomach. Has endocrine and exocrine functions

Pancreatic juice The digestive secretion produced by the pancreas

Parasympathetic division One of the two parts of the autonomic nervous system. Concerned with normal “at rest” activities

Parathyroid gland One of four small endocrine glands on the dorsal surface of the thyroid gland

Parotid gland One of the paired salivary glands ventral to the ear

Patella The kneecap

Pathogen A disease-producing organism

Pectoral To do with the chest or breast

Pelvic cavity The caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Contains the bladder, colon and reproductive structures

Pelvic girdle The bony structure formed by the hip bones, sacrum and coccygeal bones

Pelvis The structure formed by the two hip bones, sacrum and coccyx

Pericardial cavity The small cavity between the two layers of the pericardial membranes

Pericardium The membrane that encloses the heart

Periosteum The tough connective tissue covering of a bone

Peripheral Located on the outer part of the body

Peripheral nervous system The part of the nervous system composed of the cranial and spinal nerves

Peristalsis The successive muscular contractions along the wall of the gut

Peritoneum The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organ

Physiology The science that deals with the functions of an organism and its parts

Pivot joint A synovial joint where a peg of bone articulates with a ring of bone as in the joint between the atlas and axis

Pleura Membranes that cover the lungs and line the walls of the chest and diaphragm

Pleural cavity The space between the two layers of the pleura

Prolactin A hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland

Prostate gland The gland caudal to bladder in males

Proteases Enzymes that split proteins into amino acids

Protein An organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Made up of amino acids

Proximal Nearer to the body or to the point of origin

Pulmonary To do with the lungs

Pulp cavity The cavity within the crown and neck of a toot

Pulse The series of waves of high pressure blood passing along an artery

R Radius The shorter bone of the forelimb between the humerus and the “wrist”

Refraction Bending of light as it passes from one medium to another

Relaxin The hormone secreted by the placenta and ovaries that eases the joint between the right and left pelvis and dilates the cervix for birth

Renal To do with the kidney

Renal pelvis The cavity in the centre of the kidney

Renal pyramid A cone shaped structure in kidney medulla

Renal system The body system involving the kidneys

Reticulum The part of the modified stomach of ruminants with honeycomb of raised folds on its inner surface

Rickets A bone disorder caused by inadequate vitamin D

Rod The photoreceptor in the retina, specialized for vision in dim light

Rostral Towards the muzzle

Rumen The first and largest compartment of the modified stomach of ruminants.It houses the microorganisms

Ruminant An animal with a rumen: sheep, cow, camel

Rumination Chewing the “cud”

S Sacrum The triangular bone formed from fused sacral vertebrae.Located between the two hipbones

Sagittal plane Plane that divides the body into left and right portions

Sagittal section Lengthwise slice of an animal or organ

Saliva The secretion from the salivary glands

Salivary amylase The starch digesting enzyme in saliva

Scapula The shoulder blade

Sebum The waxy secretion from a sebaceous gland

Secondary sex characteristic A characteristic that develops at sexual maturity. e.g. large body size of males, manes in lions

Secretion The production or release of a fluid from a gland

Semicircular canals The membranous fluid filled canals containing receptors for equilibrium

Semilunar valve The valve guarding the entrance to the aorta or the pulmonary artery

Seminiferous tubule The tightly coiled duct in the testis where sperm are produced

Sensory neuron A neuron that carries a nerve impulse towards the central nervous system

Serum Plasma minus its clotting proteins

Sesamoid bones Small bones usually found in tendons

Shock Reduced cardiac output resulting in failure to deliver adequate oxygen and nutrients to the body

Shoulder The synovial joint where the humerus joins the scapula

Sinus An air cavity in a bone especially in the bones of the face or skull

Skeletal muscle Tissue specialized for contraction with striated fibres. Attached to the bones of the skeleton

Skull The skeleton of the head

Small intestine The long tube of the gut that begins at the stomach and ends at the large intestine

Smooth muscle Tissue specialized for contraction with spindle shaped non striated fibres

Spinal cord The mass of nerve tissue in the vertebral column

Spinal nerve One of the nerves that originate in the spinal cord

Spleen The large lymphatic organ near the stomach that stores blood and produces lymphocytes

Spongy bone The inner layer of bone; found at the ends of long bones less dense than compact bone

Squamous Scale like

Stifle The joint between the femur and the tibia on the hind leg

Stomach The large baglike part of the gut between the oesophagus and the small intestine

Striated muscle Striped or skeletal muscle

Subcutaneous Beneath the skin

Submandibular gland The salivary gland beneath the tongue

Substrate A substance on which an enzyme acts

Sulcus A groove or depression between the convolutions of the brain

Superficial Nearer to the surface of

Suture An immoveable joint in the skull

Sympathetic division One of the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system concerned with reacting to emergency situations

Synovial joint A fully moveable joint

Systemic circulation The blood circulation from the left ventricl through the aorta to all the organs of the body and back to the heart

Systole The phase of the heartbeat involving contraction of the ventricles

Systolic blood pressure The blood pressure during passage of the pulse

Synovial joint A fully moveable joint

T Target cell A cell whose activity is affected by a particular hormone

Tarsals The bones of the “ankle”

Tendons A tough cord of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones

Testis The male gonad that produces sperm

Thoracic cavity The chest cavity that contains the heart and lungs

Thorax The part of the body between the neck and the diaphragm

Tissue A group of similar cells

Tissue fluid Plasma that has left the capillaries and flowed into the spaces between the cells of the tissues; also known as intercellular fluid or interstitial fluid

Total lung capacity The sum of the tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve and residual volume of the lungs

Trachea The windpipe

Transverse A crosswise slice of an animal or organ

Triceps The muscle that extends from the shoulder to the elbow responsible for extending the forearm

Trunk The part of the body to which the fore and hind limbs are attached

Tympanic membrane The thin transparent membrane of connective tissue between the external ear, canal and the middle ear. Also called the eardrum

U Ulna The longer bone of the forelimb between the humerus and the “wrist”

Umbilical cord The cord containing arteries and vein that attaches the foetus to the placenta

Unguligrade locomotion Locomotion on the “fingernails” as in horses and pigs

Urea The soluble excretory product produced when excess amino acids (from proteins) are broken down by the body

Ureter One of two tubes that connect the kidney with the bladder

Urine The fluid produced by the kidneys

Uterus The hollow muscular organ in females where the foetus develops

V Vane The flat part of a feather emerging from the shaft; there are two vanes per feather

Vascular To do with blood

Vasoconstriction The decrease in size of the channel down a blood vessel

Vaso dilation The increase in size of the channel down a blood vessel

Vein A blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart

Velvet The tissue layer that covers antlers

Vena cava One of two large blood vessels that return blood to the heart

Ventral Nearer the belly of the animal than

Ventricles The caudal chambers of the heart

Venule A small vein

Vertebral canal The channel that encloses and protects the spinal cord

Vertebrates Animals that have a backbone or vertebral column

Vesicles Small, intracellular membrane-bound sac

Vestibular organ The organ of balance – semicircular canals and otolith organ

Villus (pl. villi) A projection from the lining of the small intestine to help absorb digested food molecules

Viscera The organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavities

Visceral skeleton Bones formed in the organs of the body

Viscosity The thickness or stickiness of a liquid

Vital capacity The sum of the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes and the tidal volume

Vital capacity The volume of the air expired when a maximum expiration follows a maximum inspiration

Vitamin An organic molecule necessary in minute quantities for the proper functioning of the chemical processes in the body

Vitreous Humor The fluid in the posterior chamber of the eye

W White matter Masses of myelinated axons located in the brain and spinal cord

Y Yellow marrow Bone marrow that is yellow with fat; found at the ends of long bones

Z Zona pellucida The tough layer surrounding the ovum

Zygote Single cell resulting from the union of the sperm and egg

HANDBOOK GRAMMARИнфинитив

Инфинитив (the Infinitive) – это неличная форма глагола, которая называет действие. Инфинитив является основной (или I) формой глагола и представляет глагол в словаре. Признаком инфинитива является частица to:to help – помогать, to read – читать. Инфинитив употребляется без частицы to в следующих случаях:

You had better go now. Лучше уйди / иди сейчас. I must see you at once. Мне надо сейчас же встретиться с тобой. В современном английском языке инфинитив имеет следующие формы.

  Active Passive

Indefinite to write to be written

Continuous to be writing —

Perfect to have written to have been written

Perfect Continuous to have been writing —

Инфинитив в форме действительного залога обозначает действие, произведённое лицом, выраженным в предложении подлежащим, а в страдательном залоге - действие, направленное на это лицо.

I like to help. Я люблю помогать.I like to be helped. Я люблю, когда мне помогают.

Инфинитив в Indefinite Active обозначает действие, не уточняя характер его протекания. Инфинитив вContinuous Active подчёркивает длительность действия.

She likes to write letters. Она могла писать письмо.She must be still writing. Она, должно быть, всё ещё пишет.

Неперфектный инфинитив выражает действие, одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого (или следующее за ним).Перфектный инфинитив выражает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым.

I am glad to study at the University. Я рад, что учусь в университете.I am glad to have studied at the University. Я рад, что учился в университете.Герундий. The Gerund

Герундий имеет свойства как глагола, так и существительного. Подобной неличной формы в русском языке нет. Как существительное он может выполнять в предложении функции подлежащего, дополнения, определения и обстоятельства с предлогом. Как глагол может иметь после себя прямое дополнение и определяться наречием, иметь перфектную форму, категорию залога, а также выражать действие как процесс.

Герундий образуется от основы глагола с помощью суффикса -ing. To translate – translating, to read – reading.

  active passive

Indefinite writing being written

Perfect having written having been written

Формы герундия совпадают с формами Participle I и Perfect Participle. Однако, это разные формы глагола, отличающиеся и по значению и по синтаксическим функциям.

Формы Indefinite Gerund обозначают действия, одновременные с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым.

He likes inviting friends to his place. Он любит приглашать друзей к себе.He likes being invited to his friends. Он любит, когда его приглашают к себе его друзья.

Перфектные формы герундия (Perfect Gerund) обозначают действия, предшествующие действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым.

He is proud of having invited this man to his place. Он гордится тем, чтопригласил этого человека к себе.He was proud of having been invited to the party. Он гордился тем, что его пригласили на вечер.

Условные придаточные предложения

Условные предложения могут выражать реальные, маловероятные (условные предложения I типа) и нереальные условия (условные предложения II типа).

Условные предложения I типа

Условие, содержащееся в условном придаточном предложении, рассматривается говорящим как реально предполагаемый факт, относящийся к настоящему, прошедшему или будущему временам. Сказуемые главного и придаточного предложений выражаются глаголами в формах изъявительного наклонения.

If the weather is nice, we go for a walk. Если погода хорошая, мы ходим на прогулку.If the weather was nice, we went for a walk. Если погода была хорошая, мы ходили на прогулку.If the weather is nice, we'll go for a walk. Если погода будет хорошая, мы пойдём на прогулку.

Условные предложения II типа

Условие, содержащееся в условном придаточном предложении, рассматривается говорящим как маловероятное. Для выражения малой вероятности осуществления действия в настоящем или будущем временах сказуемое главного предложения употребляется в форме сослагательного наклонения should / would + Indefinite Infinitive без to, а сказуемое придаточного предложения - в форме сослагательного наклонения, аналогичной Past Indefinite или were для всех лиц от глагола to be.

If he were free, he would do it. Если бы он был свободен, он бы это сделал.If we paid more attention to grammar, we should know the language better.Если бы мы уделяли грамматике больше внимания, мы бы знали язык лучше.

Условные предложения III типа.

Условие, содержащееся в условном придаточном предложении, рассматривается говорящим как неосуществимое, так как относится к прошлому времени. Сказуемое главного предложения употребляется в форме сослагательного наклонения should / would + Perfect Infinitive, а сказуемое придаточного предложения в форме сослагательного наклонения, аналогичной Past Perfect.

I should not have been late yesterday, if my watch had been write. Я бы не опоздал вчера, если бы мои часы шли правильно.

Союзы условных придаточных предложений.

if – если; in case – в случае, если; suppose (that) – предположим, что; on condition (that) – при условии, что; provided (that) – при условии, что; unless – если … не; but for – если бы не

CONTENTS

TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u UNIT 1 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc444779316 \h 4UNIT 2 ANIMAL ANATOMY PAGEREF _Toc444779317 \h 11UNIT 3 MUSCULARSKELETAL SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc444779318 \h 18UNIT 4 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc444779319 \h 25UNIT 5 RESPERATORY SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc444779320 \h 34UNIT 6 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc444779321 \h 41UNIT 7 URINARY SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc444779322 \h 47CONTROL TEST PAGEREF _Toc444779323 \h 54SUPPLEMENTARY READING PAGEREF _Toc444779324 \h 61GLOSSARY PAGEREF _Toc444779325 \h 68Handbook grammar PAGEREF _Toc444779326 \h 92

СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

1. Комарова Е. А. Английский для специальностей зоотехния и ветеринария / Е. А. Комарова. – М. : Академия, 2008.

2. Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice / Vince Michael.

М. : Mucmillan Publishers Limited, 2008.



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