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«Методические указания и контрольные работы № 4,5 предназначены для студентов II курса заочного обучения специальности 080507. Каждое ...»

Методические указания и контрольные работы № 4,5 предназначены для студентов II курса заочного обучения специальности 080507.

Каждое контрольное задание дается в 5 вариантах. Студенты должны выполнить один из пяти вариантов в соответствии с последней цифрой его шифра.

Последняя цифра шифра Номер варианта

1 и 2 1

3 и 4 2

5 и 6 3

7 и 8 4

9 и 10 5

Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольного задания нужно проработать соответствующие тексты из учебного пособия и грамматический материал, указанный в методическом письме, составленном кафедрой иностранных языков МГТУ ГА.

Все задания должны быть выполнены в той последовательности, в которой они даны в настоящих указаниях. Необходимо внимательно ознакомиться с заданием и точно следовать его требованиям.

Контрольное задание должно быть написано чернилами четко и аккуратно. При выполнении работы необходимо оставлять поля для замечаний рецензента. Английский текст следуем писать на левой странице развернутой тетради, а его перевод на русский язык – на правой странице развернутой тетради. Все упражнения должны быть выполнены таким образом.

Если контрольная работа выполнена не в соответствии с заданиями или не полностью, или выполнен не свой вариант, она возвращается студенту без проверки.

Получив проверенную рецензентом контрольную работу, студент обязан проанализировать замечания рецензента и написать правильный вариант предложения, где были допущены ошибки.



Защита контрольных работ проводится по зачтенным работам с исправленными ошибками.

Контрольная работа № 4 (1)

I. Прочитайте, а затем письменно переведите 2, 3, 5 абзацы текста. Английский текст перепишите на левой странице тетради, русский перевод – на правой.1. Aeroflot, the leading national air company of Russia, is rightfully regarded as one of the biggest air carries of the country. Every third Russian citizen uses Aeroflot services, which exceeds now a million kilometers. Air traffic accounts for one third of the country overall passenger transport.2. Aeroflot`s international activities promote economic, political, cultural, sport and tourist relations between nations, they strengthen universal peace. Planes with Aeroflot emblem at present fly to over 100 countries and cities of Europe, Asia, Africa and America. Aeroflot makes about 400 international flights a week.

3. Aeroflot`s domestic lines link together more than 3,600 towns and populated areas in all the corners of Russia. Aviation has become the most popular means of transport on all long-range routes.

4. Delivering of various freights by air is a considerable contribution to the development of our country`s national economy. Aeroflot planes and helicopters annually carry over 3,5 million tones of cargo and mail, with most of the traffic falling on the rapidly developing areas in the North, Siberia and the Russian Far East.

5. Aeroflot is not only the most advanced means of transportation. Civil aviation is widely used in various branches of the national economy, namely: in agriculture, in the field of industrial construction, pipe-laying and the construction of power transmission lines.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1.Why has aviation become the most popular means of transport in our country? 2. In what branches of the national economy is civil aviation widely used?





III. Найдите в тексте производные от следующих слов, выпишите их, переведите на русский язык, укажите часть речи:

right, to carry, approximate, economy, strength, universe, to contribute, annual, wide, to construct.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и определите его функцию (см. модели).

1. To obtain necessary meteorological information is of great importance for a pilot. 2. Taking into consideration the role, that science plays in training senior staff for Aeroflot, the Russian Government decided to turn the Leningrad Civil Aviation College into the Civil Aviation Academy. 3. In 1967 a major air parade took place at Domodedovo to mark the 50-th anniversary of the Great October Revolution.4. Thanks to their enlarged passenger carrying capacity the new airliners enable Aeroflot to expand its passenger traffic.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните причастия I и II и определите их функции (см. модели).

1. The operation of airports is influenced by a number of factors. 2.The new equipment installed at the airports will modernize the luggage-handling facilities. 3. In 1958 Aeroflot opened its first helicopter service, linking Simferopol and Yalta. 4. In 1959 a new generation of aircraft technology appeared on Aeroflot routes, including such multi-seaters for long-range liners as the Il-18, Tu-114.

VI. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий (см. модели).

1. Aeroflot is actively engaged in designing hangars large enough to accommodate new and bigger aircraft. 2. The pilots of Russian Civil Aviation are involved in industrial mastering of unique deposits of the Russian Far East and Siberia. 3. Travelling by air is more convenient, more comfortable and of course far quicker than any other kids of travelling. 4. The new airports house all the necessary equipment for conducting safe flights.

VII. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения с конструкцией It is (was) … that (who, which) …

1. It is Russia that ranks first for the utilization of aviation in the national economy. 2. It was at the international exhibition in Berlin in 1928 that Russian planes made their first appearance. 3. It was A.N. Tupolev who designed the first Soviet all-metal plane (ANT-2).

Контрольная работа № 4 (2)

I. Прочитайте, а затем письменно переведите 1, 2, 4 абзацы текста. Английский текст перепишите на левой странице тетради, русский перевод – на правой.Civil Aviation History

1. On February 9, 1923 the Permanent Council for Civil Aviation was set up under the Soviet Government. This day is officially regarded as the day of the foundation of Russian aviation, which traversed a long and a glorious path of selfless service to Motherland.

2. The history of our civil aviation is inseparably linked to the history of five-year-plans. In 1923 Soviet designers constructed original types of aircraft and engines and the first Soviet-made passenger plane was tested.

In 1928 Soviet planes made first appearance at the international exhibition in Berlin and special attention was given to some of them. Civil aviation pilots made a great contribution to the victory over the enemy in the Great Patriotic Warof 1941-1945. During the war years more than 400 thousand tones of military cargo and about 1,6 million people were carried.

3. The post-war period constituted a new stage in the development of Soviet Civil Aviation and Il-12, An-2, Yak-12 passenger planes appeared on Aeroflot lines.

The Tu-104 opened a new era in air transport – the era of jet aviation. A new generation of aircraft technology, such multi-seaters as the Il-18, Tu-114 came to the air routes in 1959.

4. In 1966 Aeroflot began to use on its long-range services the high-speed Il-62 liner and on its local routes Yak-40 plane. In 1980 new planes such as wide-bodied 350-seater Il-86 and Yak-42, a 120-seaters for medium-range liners went into service.

5. The problem of Civil aviation technical reequipment is very important today, that`s why aviation design bureaus work on numerous project of a new aircraft. The To-204 and To-334 types are developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau. The other great project is a new four-engined wide-body international airliner Il-96, designed by Ilyushin bureau.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. What day is officially regarded as the day of foundation of Russian Civil Aviation? 2. Why is the history of Civil Aviation inseparably linked to the history of heroic five-year-plans?

III. Найдите в тексте производные от следующих слов, выпишите их, перепишите на русский язык, укажите часть речи:

official, important, to construct, inseparable, to design, to contribute, technological, location, transport.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и определите его функцию (см. модели).

1. To produce a reliable generation of aircraft has always been the main task of aircraft industry. 2. All this will make it possible to considerably raise the through-put capacity of the airport. 3. The Leningrad Civil Aviation College (now the Academy) was set up to train senior officers for Aeroflot. 4. In 1976 Aeroflot became the world`s first airline to carry over 100 million passengers a year.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните причастия I и II и определите их функции (см. модели).

1. The efficiency of airport work has been improved lately. 2. Having a high cruising speed the Tu-154 will deliver you from one part of the globe to another in no time. 3. The Leningrad Civil Aviation Academy is a major center of education with excellent teaching staff. 4. Nowadays nobody is surprised at the scope of the work performed by Aeroflot.

VI. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык. Подчеркните герундий (см. модели).

1. Aeroflot has long been involved in designing airports in foreign countries. 2. The Il-76cargo plan capable of delivering about 40 tones of cargo was successfully tested in 1976. 3. Civil aviation personnel was active in implementing tremendous plans of five- year periods. 4. The wide-bodies Il-86 capable of flying 350 passengers provides them with the maximum comfort.

VII. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения с конструкцией It is (was) … that (who, which) …

1. It is the airport functioning that affects the neighbouring regions in many ways. 2. It was in 1926 that regular flights started between Moscow and Berlin. 3. It was pilot B.Chukhnovsky who took part in the search for the crew of the «Italia» airship (crashed in the Arctic) and managed to locate the Malmgren group.

Контрольная работа № 4 (3)

I. Прочитайте, а затем письменно переведите 2, 3, 4 абзацы текста. Английский текст перепишите на левой странице тетради, перевод – на правой.Aeroflot and the National Economy

1. One can hardly name a branch of Russian national economy which does not use aircraft technology. The delivery of passengers, mail and freight is a very important, but not the only function of Civil Aviation.

2. Over 100 million hectares of collective and state farm land are processed annually from the air. This saves 1,000 tractors per each million hectares.

3. A major role is played by civil aviation in the development of new economic regions in the country. Is has become already a tradition that the first roads leading towards underground riches are those by air. Planes are actively used to build railway and car roads, electric transmission and communication lines, pipelines, etc.

4. At present aircraft technology is used by geologists, Polar researchers surveillance specialists, cartographers and to steer ships in the complex conditions of Polar navigation. Airmen locate fish shoals and provide this information to fishermen. Airborne medical services perform the noble task of protecting human health. These services make up 70 thousand flights every year, conveying 230 thousand patients and medical personnel.

5. Aviation is used on an ever wider scale to protect the environment. It performs pollution control functions. Every year aviation finds many new uses. The use of aircraft technology is studied by a unique center – the All-Union Research Institute for Aircraft Application.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. What are the main functions of Russian Civil Aviation? 2. How many hectares of collective and state farm land are processed annually from the air?

III. Найдите в тексте производные от следующих слов, выпишите их, переведите на русский язык, укажите часть речи:

nation, agriculture, to implement, recent, considerable, to develop, active, to operate, full, to research, to inform, to value.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и определите его функцию (см. модели).

1. To test the new group equipment was possible only under field conditions. 2. The main task of aircraft designers is to ensure safe and efficient airliners. 3. All this made it possible to provide an adequate comfort for numerous air travelers. 4. One helicopter is to replace 20 cranes of similar capacity.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните причастия I и II и определите их функции (см. модели).

1. On leaving the airports the planes make flights in all directions. 2. The safety of flights has been discussed since the construction of the first planes. 3. The Tu-154 is a model equipped with modern means of navigation, and automated approach to landing. 4. Aeroflot has received the Il-86 – an aerobus seating 350 passengers from the aircraft building industry.

VI. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий (см. модели).

1. The designers` work on big old airports is aimed at improving hangar age facilities. 2. The «Syrena» automated system for selling and reserving seats on planes operates at the air agencies of many Russian cities. 3. Particular attention is paid to improving reliability of aircraft. 4. Our country improves air communication greatly by increasing the number of airports.

VII. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения с конструкцией It is (was)… that (who, which)…

1. It is the location, size configuration of a new airport that the designers should pay special attention to. 2. It was Zhukovsky who was the father of Russian aviation. 3. It was in 1923 that the first Soviet passenger airline was opened.

Контрольная работа № 4 (4)

I. Прочитайте, а затем письменно переведите 1, 3, 4 абзацы текста. Английский текст перепишите на левой странице тетради, русский перевод – на правой.Russian Helicopters

1. With the appearance of helicopters the Aeroflot`s capabilities increased considerable. Thanks to their unique characteristics helicopters have found their use in such applications where cars, tractors, ships proved to be inapplicable.

2. Speaking of Civil aviation`s agricultural uses, where the Russia takes the first place, it is impossible not to say about the use of helicopters for cattle breeding.

3. Planes and helicopters are used in air patrolling of more than 800 million hectares of forests. They assess the wood stocks, the conditions of the float, they sow trees and take aerial photographs. At present helicopters are provided with a sensitive device capable of locating any forest fire over an area of up to two kilometers wide.

4. Highway patrolling is of special importance in view of increased traffic. The helicopters used for this function are equipped with all necessary communication and radar electronics.

5. Helicopters ate widely used for assembly operation. One helicopter replaces 20 cranes of similar capacity. The Mi-10K helicopter was designed for complicated assembly operations. A 200-meter high TV tower in Yakutsk was fully assembled using only 14 flights of a helicopter.

6. Doing assembly operations Russian helicopters can be met in other countries, such as Poland, Bulgaria and Hungary. They are also displayed at the aerospace salon in Paris and are highly appreciated.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. What makes the helicopter especially valuable? 2. What devices are modern helicopters equipped with?

III. Найдите в тексте производные от следующих слов, выпишите их, переведите на русский язык, укажите часть речи:

to appear, considerable, to apply, especially, to value, to communicate, wide, to operate, full.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и определите его функцию (см. модели).

1. Travelling by air one can have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. 2. To help the developing countries to organize good running of the civil aviation enterprises is the primary task of the ICAO. 3. In 1960`s terminals were designed to handle hundreds of passengers. 4. To help some countries to organize good running of the civil aviation enterprises the Russian specialists are sent to work there.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните причастия I и II и определите их функции (см. модели).

1. The new instruments developed at the Institute will be installed in the aircraft. 2. A series of experiment for improving air communication is being conducted by scientists. 3. Taking off at Domodedovo, the planes head for the far-off areas of Siberia, the Far East and the Central Asia. 4. In 1940, the last year before the war Aeroflot services extending for 144 000 kilometers carried 410 thousand passengers.

VI. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий (см. модели).

1. The Tu-154 is a model with a big power-to-weight ratio, equipped with modern means of navigation and automated approach to landing. 2. Without maintaining the aircraft in good operating conditions the demands for safety regular traffic would be impossible. 3. Important result on long distance communication were obtained by introducing jet liners. 4. Without using new materials it will be impossible to construct new planes.

VII. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения с конструкцией It is (was) … that (who, which) …

1. It was A.N.Tupolev who said that the future of planes was in light metals. 2. It was on July 15, 1923 that the first scheduled air service extending from Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod was opened. 3. It is February 9, 1923 that is officially regarded as the day of the foundation of Russian Civil Aviation.

Контрольная работа № 4 (5) I. Прочитайте, а затем письменно переведите 1, 3, 4 абзацы текста. Английский текст перепишите на левой странице тетради, русские перевод – на правой.Aeroflot`s International Flights

1. Flights abroad occupy an important place in Aeroflot activity. The development of international lines is an important factors for the strengthening of peace and friendship among nations and for all-round expansion of economic and cultural relations.

2. Today people all over the globe know the world «Aeroflot». Our planes fly now to more than 100 countries of Europe, Asia, Africa and America. The overall length of Aeroflot`s international air liners is about 400 000 km. Aeroflot jet liners service the Trans-Siberian, Trans-Atlantic, Trans-Asian routes, linking dozens of cities and capitals of all over the world.

3. Here are some landmarks of Aeroflot`s international activities. In 1956 flights to Prague by the Tu-104, the first passenger jet, designed by A.N.Tupolev, began. In 1959 the Tu-114 flew for the first time from Moscow to New-York not-stop. In 1960 in Moscow the Sheremetyevo international airport was opened. Now – this is the main air gate of Russia which handles 2000 passengers an hour and 6 million passengers a year. In 1970 a train-continental Il-62 liner opened the Paris-Moscow-Tokyo service across Siberia. The beginning of flights from European countries via Moscow and Siberia to Japan was a remarkable event in the development of international air traffic.

4. The world «Aeroflot» means speed, reliability and comfort. Air routes outside the boundaries of Russia are served by nigh-speed comfortable and modernized Il-62, Tu-134, Tu-154 planes, the Il-86 aerobus, Yak-42 trunk line aircraft and other modern efficient transport planes. Civil aviation cooperation is particularly among other countries. Russia as ICAO member-state participates in settling a number of problems of international air transport.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. What is an important factor for the strengthening of peace and friendship among nations? 2. What does the world «Aeroflot» mean today?

III. Найдите в тексте производные от следующих слов, выпишите их, переведите на русский язык, укажите часть речи:

importance, active, to develop, to expand, economy, designer, line, to serve, to begin, reliable, to cooperate.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и определите его функцию (см. модели).

1. The Soviet Union helped the developing countries to build up their independent economies. 2. In 1968 research work began to design terminal buildings capable of handing more than 1000 passengers per hour. 3. An air travel aboard an airline will give you a chance to see many cities of Russia. 4. In 1956 the Tu-104, the first Aeroflot jet plane, started to make regular flights.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните причастия I и II и определите их функции (см. модели).

1. The number of airports connecting the far-off regions of Russia is constantly increasing. 2. While working on ground equipment the designers made many improvements. 3. The quality of airborne equipment is being improved. 4. The Moscow Civil Aviation Technical University, established in 1971, has an excellent teaching staff.

VI. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий (см. модели).

1. A great deal of planning is undertaken by the research institutes for improving the technical installations at the airports. 2. The teaching staff of the Moscow Civil Aviation Technical University has all the opportunities for training highly qualified specialists. 3. New complexes of automated control system (A.C.S.) are made for controlling air traffic. 4. In designing new airport facilities the engineers use up-to-date technology.

VII. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения с конструкцией It is (was) … that (who, which) …

1. There were aviation designers who first noted that aviation would play an important part in Russian economy. 2. It is Ya.N.Moiseyev whom the first flight in Aeroflot`s history belong to. 3. It was in 1930 that the first issue of the «Civil Aviation» magazine was published.

Контрольная работа № 5 (1)

I. Прочитайте весь текст, затем письменно переведите на русский язык 3, 4 абзацы. Английский текст перепишите на левой стороне тетради, русский – на правой.Management

1. We live in an era of accelerating global competition. Pressures from foreign

companies are causing many managers to reassess their approaches as they strive to deal effectively with a formidable competitive environment more than ever, managers operating both globally and domestically, require the best ideas that the field of management has to offer in order to pain a competitive edge.

2. One important means of gaining an edge is through innovation, the major and minor improvements that ultimately add up to outstanding performance. How do managers promote such innovations within organizations? How do they apply the wealth of ideas that flaw from research on management? How can they adapt the practices of successful organizations to their oun situation? Such are the exciting challengers that mangers face in today`s competitive world.

3. Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Although these four functions from the basis of the managerial process, several other elements contribute to an understanding of how managers actually operate.

For instance, work methods and managerial roles, as well as work agendas, feed into the management functions aimed at performance. A manager`s knowledge base and management skills are also important factors in reaching targetel performance.

4. The key management skills fit into three categories: technical, human and conceptual. These skills, as well as the other elements in the management process, impact performance. Performance is made up of two important dimentions: effectiveness and efficiency.

Effectiveness is the ability to choose appropriate goals and achieve them, while efficiency is the ability to make the best use of available resources in the process of achieving goals.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. What is management? 2. Which are the key management skills?

III. Выпишите из текста соответствия следующим сочетаниям:

1. Всеобщая конкуренция. 2. Инновация. 3. Управление производством. 4. Эффективность.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «сложное подлежащее» (см. модели).

1. The importance of statistics for managing production is believed to grow steadily. 2. The economists are supposed to have been applied the new economic mathematical method in their work. 3. Science is known to affect the production sphere. 4. The new system of automatic control is likely to be used in future.

V. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «самостоятельный причастный оборот» (см. модели).

1. The new computer having been tested, the operator started programming it. 2. Technique having reached a high stage of development, new methods of work became possible. 3. The automatic control system having been introduced at the plant, they raised their labour productivity. 4. The experiment having been finished, the scientist published the results.

VI. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на глаголы should (в значении «должен», «следует») и would (в сослагательном наклонении – глагол +частица «бы»).

1. Scientific technical and organizational activity of people should revolutionize modern social production. 2. The introduction of a new style of management would be impossible without scientific organization of labour. 3. The process of achieving organizational goals should be engaging in four major functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. 4. A manager would function effectively with a set of cooperative relationship with individuals.

Контрольная работа № 5 (2)

I. Прочитайте весь текст, затем письменно переведите на русский язык 1, 4 абзацы. Английский текст перепишите на левой стороне тетради, русский – на правой.Marketing

1. Everybody is familiar with a street market, where buyers and sellers met up to bargain and trade. The term «marketing», however, has a far wider use. A market can be described as any situation in which buyers and sellers come into contact. Goods or services will normally be exchanged for money at a later date.

2. When developing products it is important to pay close attention to customers` wishes. In simple terms marketing is responsible for making sure that people want to buy what you want to sell. However, the times, the market place and the demands of your customers change and in order to stay in business and be successful it is vital to keep up with and be aware with these changes. If you do not, you will produce goods that no one wants to buy, and as sales fall – so will profits

3. Research and development of products and services goes hand in hand with marketing them. In other words marketing must be field in with the need to develop new products and to change old ones.

Spending money on marketing needs to be linked to the life cycle of a product. It its infancy a product needs to have a lot of money spent on promotion so that people are aware of its existence. Once the item becomes better known it will tend to promote itself. Marketing managers must then decide whether to continue with heavy advertising expenditure or to switch to promoting other less well known lines.

4. The main ingredients in marketing a product are: 1. advertising; 2. selling; 3. distribution methods; 4. after-sales service; 5. pricing.

These combine to make the marketing mix. The idea behind the marketing mix is that it is necessary to combine your marketing ingredients in such a way that will give you the biggest market share.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. How can market be described? 2. Which are the main ingredients in marketing a products?

III. Выпишите из текста соответствия следующим сочетаниям:

1. Потребительский спрос. 2. Продукция и услуги. 3. Реклама. 4. Ценообразование.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на глаголы should (в значении «должен», «следует») и would (в сослагательном наклонении – глагол +частица «бы»).

1. The administration of the enterprises should provide practical organization of scientific planning and management system. 2. It should be emphasized that the main aim of production is to meet people`s needs as fully as possible. 3. In future market research would require a special form of skill. 4. This paper would include up-to-date statistics about the size and number of the markets.

V. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «самостоятельный причастный оборот» (см. модели).

1. All conditions being available, it is necessary to realize a new system of planning and management. 2. The experiment having been finished, the scientists published the results. 3. The goods having been sorted, they were set to the stores. 4. The present day scientific and technological progress is accompanied by deep changes in science, technology and industry, the people being the main producers of material and spiritual wealth.

VI. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «сложное подлежащее» (см. модели).

1. Market research is sure to involve collecting and recording all the available information. 2. Under these conditions the output of the plant is likely to encrease. 3. The all-round mechanization and automation are sure to increase labour productivity in our economy. 4. New types of computers are expected to perform calculations with great precision.

Контрольная работа № 5 (3) I. Прочитайте весь текст, затем письменно переведите на русский язык 2, 3 абзацы. Английский текст перепишите на левой стороне тетради, русский – на правой.Air Transport Planning

1. International air transport is a world-wide public utility which involves governments, airport authorities, aircraft operators and manufacturers, and is aimed toward serving the world`s population efficiently. To obtain its full benefits all parts of the air transport system should be kept in balance.

Air transport cannot exist without adequate airports and the technical facilities that serve the interconnecting air routes. The provision and operation of these facilities call for money and manpower. The growth and increasing complexity of aviation has not always been matched by increases in the resources of national civil aviation administrations. A result is that many aviation administrations are unable to collect and analyze the data necessary for effective long term planning, and are short of trained and experienced personnel to plan, design and operate new facilities and services.

2. Planning for the optimum development of air transport is particularly difficult for two main reasons: first, the inadequacy in many parts of the world of the data on which forecasts and planning studies must be based; and second, the necessity of coordinating air transport with surface transport planning. The factors involved in forecasting and planning being unknown, the inadequacy of data is of course relative.

3. Air transport development is coordinated with the development of the various surface transport modes to produce the rational total transport system that will best serve the public interest in areas where air transport is in direct competition with rail, road or sea transport. Integral planning is required to determine the allocation of funds between various modes, taking into accounts such matters as relative costs, congestion and the possible development of economically feasible quiet aircraft types with limited runway requirements.

4. Planning is also required to ensure that transport aircraft are operated without detriment to the human environment resulting from such factors as noise, sonic boom and engine emissions and that account is taken of the economic problems for civil aviation caused by flight restriction and engine modification to meet established standards.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. Why is planning for the optimum development or air transport difficult? 2. What is integral planning required to determine?

III. Выпишите из текста английские соответствия следующим сочетаниям:

1. Технические средства. 2. Долгосрочное планирование. 3. Наземный транспорт. 4. Окружающая среда.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на глаголы should (в значении «должен», «следует») и would (в сослагательном наклонении – глагол + частица «бы»).

1. It should be pointed out that air transport involves the operation of airport authorities, aircraft and manufactures facilities and services. 2. Air transport development should be coordinated with the development of the various surface transport modes to produce the rational total transport system. 3. Where social and industrial factors appear significant they should, if possible, be taken into account. 4. The rational transport system would best serve the public interest in areas where air transport is in direct competition with rail, road or sea transport.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «самостоятельный причастный оборот» (см. модели).

1. Forecasting methods and procedures being different in different cases. It`s impossible to point out any particular method or procedure as recommended practice. 2. Indicators being used to estimate the influence of economic factors on the demand for air transport, they will only give a very approximate representation of the highly complex relationship between economics and air transport demand. 3. Science being a direct productive force, scientific forecasts have become the basic tool for raising plans` efficiency. 4. The growing volume of air cargo has led to the development of data processing methods for the air cargo control, such methods being necessary only when the volume of air cargo is heavy.

VI. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «сложное дополнение» (см. модели).

1. We believe Russian Civil Aviation to have well trained and experienced personnel for planning, designing and operating new technical facilities and services. 2. They expected the airport plan to define the aircraft, passenger, cargo and ground vehicle capacities. 3. Planning requires air transport to operate without detriment to the human environment. 4. We know the accuracy of forecasts to be influenced by a large number of factors.

Контрольная работа № 5 (4)I. Прочитайте весь текст, затем письменно переведите на русский язык 1, 3 абзацы. Английский текст перепишите на левой странице тетради, русский – на правой.Airport Planning System

1. Planning of airport is complicated by the diversity of facilities and services which are necessary for the movement of aircraft, passengers and cargo and the ground vehicles associated with them, and the necessity to integrate their planning. These facilities include runways and taxiways, aircraft aprons, buildings where aircraft operators deliver and receive passengers, where government control authorities undertake their inspections for passengers` comfort and assistance. Additional requirements are building and parking areas for aircraft maintenance, road and parks for vehicles used by passengers`, visitors, aircraft operators and all occupants of the airport, and building for the dispatch and receipt air cargo. The operation of an airport integrates the functions of many of these facilities and, therefore, they should not be planned as separate units.

2. The master plan for the whole airport should evolve through consideration of all factors which affect air transport. The plan should provide a framework within which future development and expansion can take place and should define the aircraft, passenger, cargo and ground vehicle capacities, together with an indication of the major phases of construction which are possible in physical and economic terms and the dates by which they are forecast to be required.

3. Forecasts are basis of planning. They are necessary to define the scale of facilities, their type and the time when they will be required. To be usable by planners forecasts must be broken down into the various items which are required for detail planning purposes. It is the planner`s obligation to define the items for which forecasts are required, and the types of forecasts required, for each particular airport.

4. The accuracy of forecasts is subject to the influence of a large number of factors and it is not possible precisely to predict the limites and size of future requirements. The longer period of the forecasts the more there is scope for variations in factors which affect the ultimate result and, in general, the less reliable the forecasts becomes.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. Why is planning of airports complicated? 2. What is the basis of planning?

III. Выпишите из текста английские соответствия следующим сочетаниям:

1. Удобства для пассажиров. 2. Техобслуживание самолетов. 3. Функционирование аэропорта. 4. Точность прогнозов.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на глаголы should (в значении «должен», «следует») и would (в сослагательном наклонении – глагол + частица «бы»).

1. The master plan for the airport should evolve through consideration of all the factors which affect air transport. 2. The airport operation integrates the functions of many facilities and services and they should not be planned as separate units. 3. Integral planning would be required to determine the allocation of founds between various transport modes. 4. Long-term forecasts should be projected taking into consideration operational, technical and economic factors.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «самостоятельный причастный оборот» (см. модели).

1. The principal characteristics of the airplane being very high speed and the ability to operate over any land or water, suitable airports are available at the points of departure and arrival. 2. The complex character of economic forecasts and the high number or variables being involved, economic-mathematical models are used to optimise objective tendencies and structural changes in the national economy. 3. The customs authorities being responsible for the clearance of air cargo at a number of international airports this may become necessary at more and more airports with the growing cargo volume. 4. Transport environment of a new airport being unstable, it`s an extremely difficult problem to produce its operation forecasts.

VI. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «сложное дополнение» (см. модели).

1. We know planning of airports to be complicated by the diversity of facilities and services. 2. Economists consider forecasts to be the basis of planning, scale, type and the time of activities required. 3. We believe some aspects of the plan to require more detailed and intensive study with reference to local conditions and other factors. 4. The airport authorities supposed runways to be the first to consider because of physical characteristics and the land required.

Контрольная работа №5 (5)

I. Прочитайте текст, затем письменно переведите на русский язык 1, 3 абзацы. Английский текст перепишите на левой странице тетради, русский  – на правой.Air Transport Operating Costs

1. We know the terms «operating costs» or «operating expense» to be referred to the cost of producing a certain quantity of air transport. For purposes of comparing one year, one aircraft type or one airline with another it is convenient to employ unit cost figures, that is the cost of producing one unit (aircraft hour, aircraft kilometer, tone- kilometer or passenger- kilometer) of transport.

2. The cost of producing a unit of air transport capacity includes a number of components which are groped in various ways and may be divided, for example, into direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those associated directly with the characteristics of the aircraft. Direct costs cover flight operations (including flight crew, fuel and oil, flight equipment insurance, and rental of flight equipment) maintenance and overhaul, and depreciation. Indirect costs, which cover all other items of operating costs, include station and ground expenses ( including landing and departure feels), passenger services, ticketing sales and promotion, and general and administrative activities.

3. The level of air transport operating costs is a fundamental element in the economy of the air transport industry. Operating costs have an important determining effect on average fares and rates and consequently also on the volume and growth of air traffic and on the extent to which air transport penetrates the total transport market. Air transport has certain competitive advantages over the various modes of surface transport, particularly speed, these advantages being most effective only when average costs, fares and rates are sufficiently low to be competitive with those of surface transport.

II. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. Why is it convenient to employ unit cost figures? 2. Why is the level of air transport operating costs a fundamental element in the economy of the air transport industry?

III. Выпишите из текста соответствия следующим сочетаниям:

1. Общие расходы. 2. Косвенные расходы. 3. Плата за проезд. 4. Тариф, расценка.

IV. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на глаголы should (в значении «должен», «следует») и would (в сослагательном наклонении – глагол + частица «бы»).

1. Direct costs associated with the aircraft characteristics, should cover flight operations, maintenance, overhaul and depreciation.

2. Indirect costs which cover all other items of operating cost should include station and ground expenses, passenger services, ticketing sales and administrative activities. 3. If an aircraft is arranged for the carriage of cargo rather than passengers the aircraft payload capacity would be greatly increased by the absence of various passenger facilities. 4. Arising from the current economic environment such factors as salary and wage levels, fuel and oil prices, levels of aircraft rental fees and charges for air navigation facilities would vary internationally from region to region.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «самостоятельный причастный оборот» (см. модели).

1. Factors affecting operating costs level can be ground under four main headings, characteristics of the aircraft used and current economic environment being the most important of them. 2. The upward turn in the airport speed and capacity being sharp, the resultant productivity is of course the consequence of the introduction of the long range jet aircraft. 3. Air transport capacity demand and the competitive situation in relation to other air carries may vary both domestically and internationally, such variations being associated with any particular aircraft type. 4. Air transport operating costs being relatively high and static, fares tend to remain high and the volume of traffic decreases.

VI. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «сложное дополнение» (см. модели).

1. Engineers know the design characteristics, such as capacity, speed, crew, size and fuel consumption to be common to all aircraft of a given type. 2. They considered the economic environment, route structure and carrier decisions to vary depending on operating factors of a particular aircraft. 3. Well supersonic transport to appear in the nearest future, but with the problem difficult for estimating costs level. 4. The economists suppose the evolution of aircraft characteristics on international services to be shown in terms of a single factor by combining speed and payload capacity to obtain average aircraft productivity.

Модели к контрольной работе № 4

I. Инфинитив

1. To obtain necessary meteorological information is of great importance for a pilot. Получение необходимой информации метеорологической сводки имеет для пилота большое значение.

To obtain – инфинитив в функции подлежащего.2. In 1976 Aeroflot became the world`s first airline to carry over 100 million passengers a year. В 1976 г. Аэрофлот стал первой авиакомпанией в мире, которая перевезла 100 миллионов пассажиров в год.

To carry – инфинитив в функции определения.3. The main task of airport designers is to ensure safe and efficient fleet of airliners. Основная задача авиаконструкторов – обеспечение надежного и экономичного самолетного парка.

To ensure – инфинитив в функции именной части составного сказуемого.4. One helicopter is to replace 20 cranes of adequate capacity. Один вертолет должен заменить 20 кранов соответствующей мощности.

To replace – инфинитив в функции части составного глагольного сказуемого.5. To help some countries to organize good running of civil aviation enterprises the Russian specialists are sent to work there. Чтобы помочь нескольким странам в хорошей эксплуатации предприятий гражданской авиации, туда посылают работать российских специалистов.

To help – инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели.To organize – инфинитив в функции дополнения.To work – инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели.II. Причастие

1. In 1958 Aeroflot opened its first helicopter service, linking Simferopol and Yalta. В 1958 г. Аэрофлот открыл свою вертолетную линию, связывающую Симферополь и Ялту.

Linking – причастие I в функции определения.

2. Nowadays nobody is surprised at the scope of the work performed by Aeroflot. Сейчас уже никто не удивляется размаху производимых Аэрофлотом работ.

Surprised – причастие II в составе пассивного сказуемого.

Performed – причастие II функции определения.

3. On leaving the airports the planes make flights in all directions. Покидая аэропорты, самолеты совершают полеты во всех направлениях.

On leaving – причастие I в функции обстоятельства.4. While working on ground equipment the designers made many improvements. При работе с наземным оборудованием конструкторы сделали много усовершенствований.

While working – причастие I в функции обстоятельства.

III. Герундий

1. The new airport house all the necessary equipment for conducting safe flights. Новые аэропорты имеют для проведения безопасных полетов все необходимое оборудование.

IV. Конструкции It is … that (who, which) …

It was in 1930 that the first issue of the «Civil Aviation» magazine was published. Именно в 1930 г. был выпущен первый номер журнала «Гражданская Авиация».

Модели к контрольной работе № 5

I. Сложное подлежащее

All the Union Republics are known to have helped the restoration of Tashkent after the earthquake.

1. Все союзные республики, как известно, помогли восстановлению Ташкента после землетрясения.

2. Известно, что все союзные республики помогли восстановлению Ташкента после землетрясения.

II. Сложное дополнение

1. We believe forecasts to be the basis of planning. Мы полагаем, что прогнозы являются основой планирования.

2. Engineers know aircraft performances to be different in different types of aircraft. Инженеры знают, что характеристики самолета для разных типов самолетов различны.

III. Самостоятельный причастный оборот

1. В начале предложения

The devices being reliable, the engineers use them in the experiment. Так как приборы надежны, инженеры используют из в эксперименте.

2. В конце предложения

It`s necessary to provide a new system of management of production, conditions being available. При наличии всех условий необходимо создать новую систему управления производством.

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